Tuesday, February 20, 2024

How Soon Can You Transmit Hiv After Being Infected

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Is It Safe For Children With Hiv To Receive Routine Immunizations

Real Question: How Long Does it Take to Test Positive for HIV?
  • MMR, or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, is safe to give to children with HIV, unless they have a severely weakened immune system.

  • DTaP/Td vaccine is safe to give to infants and children with HIV.

  • Hib and Hep B vaccines are safe to give to children with HIV.

  • Hepatitis A and B vaccines are safe to give to HIV-positive children.

  • VZIG should be considered for known HIV-positive children, depending on their immune status.

  • A yearly influenza vaccine is recommended for children with HIV, as well as any individual living in the same household as a child with HIV. There are two types of influenza vaccine children and adults with HIV should receive the “shot” form of the vaccine–not the nasal spray form, as it contains a live virus. Pneumococcal vaccine can be safely administered to age-appropriate HIV-infected children.

Always consult with your child’s doctor regarding immunizations for an HIV-infected child.

Hiv Is Detected With A Blood Test

Blood tests are the most common and reliable tests for HIV. The virus is detected by taking a sample of your blood either with a conventional blood test or a rapid test .There is a short period of time between exposure to HIV and the ability for tests to detect HIV or its antibodies. This is often referred to as the ‘window period’ between 2 and 12 weeks.

Most tests used in Australia can detect HIV as early as 2 to 4 weeks after infection.

If your blood test shows that HIV or its antibodies are present, you are HIV-positive.

If you have no antibodies in your blood you are HIV-negative. Sometimes negative results might also mean you are in the window period, so you might need a follow-up blood test to make sure.

Should You Consider Preventive Medication

How quickly a person is able to see a healthcare professional after exposure to HIV can significantly affect their chances of contracting the virus.

If you believe youve been exposed to HIV, or have a high risk of being exposed to HIV, visit a healthcare professional within 72 hours. You may be offered an antiretroviral treatment called post-exposure prophylaxis , which can reduce your risk of contracting HIV. PEP is typically taken once or twice daily for 28 days.

PEP has little or no effect if taken more than

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Some Practices Dont Reduce Your Risk Of Hiv

Some people use unreliable methods to reduce their risk of HIV. These include:

  • Serosorting choosing your sexual partner based upon them having the same HIV status as you.
  • Strategic positioning where an HIV-negative partner penetrates an HIV-positive partner.
  • Withdrawal when the insertive partner pulls out before ejaculating .

None of these strategies are reliable, so you are at risk of HIV transmission.Having sex only with people who have the same HIV status can be very risky. For example, a person may think they are HIV-negative, but may have been exposed to HIV since their last test, or may never have been tested at all.

Using a combination of proven, reliable strategies like condoms, PrEP, and undetectable viral load is the best way to prevent HIV transmission.

Can I Get Pregnant If I Have Hiv

STD Testing

Some people think that HIV hurts your chances of getting pregnant, but this isnt true. If you have HIV and want to become pregnant, talk to your healthcare provider. Together you can make a plan before you try to get pregnant to keep you, your partner and any future children healthy.

HIV can spread to your partner during unprotected sex and to your baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Taking ART medications can greatly reduce your risk of transmitting HIV to your baby, especially if you have an undetectable viral load. Your provider may recommend that you dont breastfeed your baby and use formula instead.

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How Is Hiv Not Spread

HIV is not spread by:

  • Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects
  • Saliva, tears, sweat, feces, or urine that is not mixed with the blood of a person with HIV
  • Shaking hands hugging sharing toilets sharing dishes, silverware, or drinking glasses or engaging in closed-mouth or social kissing with a person with HIV
  • Drinking fountains
  • Other sexual activities that dont involve the exchange of body fluids .

Is It True That Gay Men Are More At Risk For Hiv Than Other People

Although anyone can be at risk for HIV, some people can be more at risk depending upon the types of sexual practices and drug use they are engaging in. Being gay does not necessarily mean you are at higher risk, but certain activities gay men sometimes participate in might put them at greater risk. Overall, the gay male population in Canada has higher rates of HIV infection than some other populations. Stigma and homophobia can affect a person’s ability to access information about safer sex specifically for gay men.

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How Is Hiv Diagnosed

Diagnosis of HIV infection during infancy depends on the detection of the virus. Since all infants born to HIV-infected mothers have a positive antibody test at birth because of the passive transfer of the HIV antibody across the placenta, virological testing is used to confirm the diagnosis.

For infants born to HIV-infected mothers, viral diagnostic testing is usually performed within the first 2 days of life, at 1 to 2 months of age, and at 4 to 6 months of age. A diagnosis of HIV infection can be made with two positive virologic tests obtained from different blood samples.

For children over 18 months, adolescents, or adults, diagnosis is made by testing the blood for the presence of HIV antibody.

What You Need To Know About The Links Between Hiv And Stds

HIV Prevention Lets Talk About PEP

Many people think that STDs are a harmless fact of life. Since most STDs can be cured, people think, Doctors give you medicine and thats the end of it, right? Well, not quite! Having an STD can increase your chances of getting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

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How Much Do Hiv Tests Cost

Unlike rapid tests, blood tests for HIV are covered by Medicare, which means your doctor can order the test free of charge for you.

If you are not eligible for Medicare, you may also be able to claim some of the testing costs through private health insurance. Check with your provider to see if youre eligible.

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How You Get Hiv

Other ways of getting HIV include:

  • using a contaminated needle, syringe or other equipment to inject drugs
  • transmission from a mother to her child before, during or shortly after birth however, with medical treatment it is possible to prevent the virus from being passed on by a mother to her child
  • through blood transfusions however, since 1985 all blood donated in the UK must be screened for HIV – screening policies in the developing world may not be as rigorous, so there is a possible risk of developing HIV if you receive a blood transfusion in certain parts of the world
  • through oral sex or sharing sex toys

HIV cannot be transmitted from:

  • being sneezed on by someone with HIV
  • sharing baths, towels or cutlery with an HIV-infected person
  • swimming in a pool or sitting on a toilet seat that someone with HIV has used
  • animals or insects such as mosquitoes

Saliva, sweat and urine do not contain enough of the HIV virus to infect another person.

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Can Anyone Get Hiv

Yes. Like most illnesses, HIV doesnât discriminate between types of people and the infection can be passed on to anyone viaâ¯one of the waysâ¯mentioned above. Itâs a common misunderstanding that HIV only affects certain groups.

While not everyone has the same level of HIV risk, everyone can reduce their risk of infection.

How Soon Will Get The Result

How Soon Can Hiv Be Detected

Some types of HIV test give a result very quickly. Services that offer rapid testing will take a blood sample using a finger-prick test this will give a result within minutes. The same goes for self-testing kits. With other types of test that require the sample to be sent to a lab, the results may take a few days.

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What Can It Do To Me

Syphilis symptoms go away in 6 months even with no treatment, but the germs are still spreading in your body. Years later syphilis enters its third stage. This may cause heart disease, brain damage or death. Early treatment can protect against this.

People with genital sores may have a greater chance of getting HIV infection. If you have HIV infection, the second and third stage of syphilis may come sooner and be more serious.

Benefits Of Early Detection And Treatment

If you think you may have an STD, its important to stop engaging in sexual activity and seek treatment. Early detection and treatment of STDs plays an important role in stopping the transmission of STDs between yourself, your sexual partners, and their sexual partners. In some cases, it can even save your life.

Some of the potential risks of untreated STDs include:

Taking care of your sexual health is important. Not everyone will voluntarily disclose their STD status to you. You can take control of your sexual health by asking questions, screening new sexual partners, and having open and honest discussions about sexually transmitted diseases.

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Hiv Tests For Screening And Diagnosis

HIV tests are very accurate, but no test can detect the virus immediately after infection. How soon a test can detect HIV depends on the type of test being used. There are three types of HIV tests: antibody tests, antigen/antibody tests, and nucleic acid tests .

An initial HIV test usually will either be an antigen/antibody test or an antibody test. If the initial HIV test is a rapid or self-test and it is positive, the person should go to a health care provider to get follow-up testing. If the initial HIV test is a lab test and it is positive, the lab will usually conduct follow-up testing on the same blood sample as the initial test. Although HIV tests are generally accurate, follow-up tests allow the health care provider to confirm the result.

How Is Hiv Transmitted

Living a normal life with HIV

Not all body fluids can transmit HIV. The following cannot transmit HIV:

  • Exchanging saliva, like through closed-mouth kissing or sharing drinks/utensils
  • Coming in contact with an HIV positive personâs tears, sneezes, or sweat
  • Ordinary physical contact, such as hugging, hand shaking, or touching shared objects like cutlery, cups, or toilet seats .
  • Pets and insects cannot carry the virus and infect you, because transmission of HIV is only between humans .

While care needs to be taken in some situationsâlike when having sex or when open injuries are presentâthis certainly does not mean that it is unsafe to be around people with HIV. Think of how you interact with the vast majority of peopleâbodily fluids are not exchanged. Harboring discriminatory thoughts only perpetuates a fearful stigma against someone with HIV, which only hurts the person who has it.

HIV is often transmitted through sexual activity and drug use in adults in the United States . Maternal transmissionâfrom mother to childâis how the infection is spread to infants .

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To Prevent Hiv Infection Couples Try Testing Together

In other words, particular versions of the virus, with particular DNA sequences, are most likely to pass from a woman to a man. This reduces the chance an infection occurs during sex.

The restriction is less when women have sex with an HIV-positive man. And, most likely, reduced even further when men have sex with men. So the chance of an infection increases in both situations.

As HIV replicates inside a person, mutations are introduced into its DNA. This results in a large number of different HIV versions swarming about the body each with its own genetic code.

But when HIV is transmitted through sex, usually only a single version of the virus establishes a long-term infection. So the process is almost like a filter, letting only certain viruses through.

This made scientists wonder: Is there something special about the HIV versions making it through the filter?

To figure this out, a team at Microsoft Research and Emory University analyzed data from a decades-long study on HIV transmission between discordant heterosexual couples in Zambia. These are couples in which one person is HIV-positive and the other is HIV-negative.

Latency Causes A Break In Symptoms

After initial exposure and possible primary infection, HIV may transition into a stage called clinically latent infection. Its also referred to as asymptomatic HIV infection due to a noticeable lack of symptoms. This lack of symptoms includes possible chronic symptoms.

According to HIV.gov, latency in HIV infection can last for 10 or 15 years. This doesnt mean that HIV is gone, nor does it mean that the virus cant be transmitted to others. Clinically latent infection may progress to the third and final stage of HIV, also referred to as AIDS.

The risk for progression is higher if a person with HIV isnt receiving treatment, such as antiretroviral therapy. Its important to take prescribed medications during all stages of HIV even if there arent any noticeable symptoms. There are several medications used for HIV treatment.

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If I Get Infected Fluid From An Hiv

No, HIV is not always passed on from someone with HIV. There are lots of reasons why this is the case. For example, if the HIV-positive person is on effectiveâ¯treatmentâ¯it will reduce the amount of HIV in their body. If a doctor confirms that the virus has reached undetectable levels it means there is no risk of passing it on.

If you take PrEP correctly you will also be protected from HIV infection in the case infected fluid enters your body.

If youâre concerned that youâve been exposed to HIV you may be able to takeâ¯post-exposure prophylaxis , which stops the virus from becoming an infection. However, itâs not available everywhere and has to be taken within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.

Hiv Treatment Side Effects

What Can Happen If Hiv Is Not Treated

Like all drugs, ART can cause side effects. These vary, depending on the person and type of treatment. Even people taking the same HIV drugs can have different side effects. The most common are:

A hypersensitivity reaction to an HIV drug called abacavir which consists of liver damage or severe skin rashes, can be life-threatening. Call your doctor or get emergency care right away if you think you have a severe reaction to this or any medication you take. Before you start any drug, make sure your doctor explains what side effects to watch out for.

Treatment as prevention: The best way to stay healthy and protect others is to start and stick with treatment. When your viral load is undetectable, you will keep yourself healthy, and thereâs no chance you can pass the virus to your sexual partner.

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What Happens If I Test Positive For Hiv

If your initial test is positive for HIV antibodies, then additional testing is required to confirm that the first one was accurate. Sometimes this involves a second blood test.

When you are first diagnosed you will probably experience strong emotions. During this time, do not try to cope on your own. Seek support by speaking with your doctor, or contact your local community organisation. They have trained peer workers available to help you through the initial stages of a positive diagnosis, but also through your journey of living well with HIV.

Part of testing best practice includes pre- and post-test counselling. Post-test counselling is important, regardless of the outcome. If you test positive, counselling can provide emotional support, further information about living with HIV, and referrals to support services.

If the test is negative, counselling can provide education about HIV and how to reduce your HIV risk in the future. are community organisations that provide support and advocacy for people with HIV. Peer workers are also available to help you navigate living with HIV.

If you have recently been diagnosed with HIV, visit Next Steps for more information.

Ways Hiv Cannot Be Spread

HIV is not spread by:

  • Mosquitoes, ticks or other insects
  • Saliva, tears, or sweat that is not mixed with the blood of a person with HIV
  • Shaking hands hugging sharing toilets sharing dishes, silverware, or drinking glasses or engaging in closed-mouth or social kissing with a person with HIV
  • Drinking fountains

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People Unaware Of Having Hiv

Its estimated that about 1 in 7 people living with HIV in the United States dont know they have the virus.

People who are unaware that they have HIV are less likely to take precautions to avoid transmission to other people. They also likely dont take medications to suppress the virus.

If you dont currently have HIV, you can prevent your chances of infection by:

  • discussing HIV and STIs with your partner before engaging in sexual activity
  • using a barrier method every time you engage in sexual activity
  • avoiding sharing needles
  • talking with your doctor about postexposure prophylaxis if you may have been exposed to HIV in the past 72 hours
  • getting tested for other STIs regularly or before engaging in sexual activity with a new partner

If you do have HIV, you can prevent transmitting it to others by:

  • discussing HIV and STIs with your partner before engaging in sexual activity
  • using a barrier method every time you engage in sexual activity
  • taking your medications as prescribed
  • avoiding sharing needles or drug injection equipment
  • having your viral load tested regularly as recommended by your doctor

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