What Is Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infection is an infection affecting a persons urinary tract. The urinary tract involves the following internal body parts: kidneys, bladder, and urethra.
Here is how they work together. The kidneys are body organs that remove the waste from the blood flowing in them. Meanwhile, the bladder stores this waste or urine. Then, the urethra is the tube carrying the urine from the bladder and out of the body. Urinary tract infections occur when bacteria happen to be in the urine and travel into the bladder.
According to reports from healthcare providers, UTIs are the principal reasons for visits among patients. Besides that, the majority of the patients with reported UTIs are women. It is because women have a shorter urethra than men, making bacteria travel shortly into the bladder.
What Oral Antibiotics Are Used To Treat An Uncomplicated Uti In Women
The following oral antibiotics are commonly used to treat most uncomplicated UTI infections :
Your doctor will choose your antibiotic based on your history, type of UTI, local resistance patterns, and cost considerations. First-line options are usually selected from nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and certain cephalosporins, for example cefpodoxime, cefdinir, or cefaclor may be appropriate options when first-line options cannot be used.
Length of treatment for cystitis can range from a single, one-time dose, to a course of medication over 5 to 7 days. Kidney infections may require injectable treatment, hospitalization, as well as a longer course of antibiotic, depending upon severity of the infection.
Sometimes a UTI can be self-limiting in women, meaning that the body can fight the infection without antibiotics however, most uncomplicated UTI cases can be treated quickly with a short course of oral antibiotics. Never use an antibiotic that has been prescribed for someone else.
In men with symptoms that do not suggest a complicated UTI, treatment can be the same as women. In men with complicated UTIs and/or symptoms of prostatitis are not present, men can be treated for 7 days with a fluoroquinolone . Tailor therapy once urine cultures are available.
Uncomplicated Cystitis In Nonpregnant Patients
Uncomplicated cystitis occurs in patients who have a normal, unobstructed genitourinary tract who have no history of recent instrumentation and whose symptoms are confined to the lower urinary tract. Uncomplicated cystitis is most common in young, sexually active women. Patients usually present with dysuria, urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and/or suprapubic pain. Treatment regimens for uncomplicated cystitis in nonpregnant women are provided in Table 1, below.
Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar. 52:e103-20. . .
Wagenlehner FM, Schmiemann G, Hoyme U, FÃ¼nfstÃ¼ck R, Hummers-Pradier E, Kaase M, et al. . Urologe A. 2011 Feb. 50:153-69. . .
Abrahamian FM, Moran GJ, Talan DA. Urinary tract infections in the emergency department. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008 Mar. 22:73-87, vi. .
Little P, Turner S, Rumsby K, Warner G, Moore M, Lowes JA, et al. Dipsticks and diagnostic algorithms in urinary tract infection: development and validation, randomised trial, economic analysis, observational cohort and qualitative study. Health Technol Assess. 2009 Mar. 13:iii-iv, ix-xi, 1-73. .
Foxman B. The epidemiology of urinary tract infection. Nat Rev Urol. 2010 Dec. 7:653-60. .
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Question : What Is The Role Of Combination Antibiotic Therapy For The Treatment Of Infections Caused By Cre
Recommendation: Combination antibiotic therapy is not routinely recommended for the treatment of infections caused by CRE.
Rationale: Although empiric combination antibiotic therapy to broaden the likelihood of at least one active therapeutic agent for patients at risk for CRE infections is reasonable, data do not indicate that continued combination therapy once the -lactam agent has demonstrated in vitro activity offers any additional benefit . Rather, the continued use of a second agent increases the likelihood of antibiotic-associated adverse events .
Observational data and clinical trials comparing ceftazidime-avibactam, meropenem-vaborbactam, and imipenem-cilastatin-relebactam to combination regimens to treat CRE infections have not shown the latter to have added value . Randomized trial data are not available comparing these agents as monotherapy and as a component of combination therapy . However, based on available outcomes data, clinical experience, and known toxicities associated with aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins, the expert panel does not recommend combination therapy for CRE infections, when susceptibility to a preferred -lactam agent has been demonstrated.
Which Antibiotic Gets Rid Of A Uti Fastest
The antibiotic you will be prescribed will depend on a few factors, such as how often you get UTIs, your medication allergies, and other medical conditions you have. No matter which one your provider chooses, though, know that they all work well.
is a first choice because it works very well and can treat a UTI in as little as 3 days when taken twice a day. Some providers might choose to have you take it a few days longer than that to be sure your infection is totally gone. Unfortunately, Bactrim is a sulfa drug, and many people are allergic to it.
is another first choice for UTIs, but it has to be taken a bit longer than Bactrim. You have to take Macrobid twice a day for a minimum of 5 days for UTIs, but many providers will have you take it for a week to be sure you are all better.
remains a fan favorite because it works in as little as 3 days and only has to be taken once a day. But it does carry some serious risks like tendon ruptures and heart problems. It also tends to cause bacterial resistance more often than the previously mentioned antibiotics.
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How To Cope With Side Effects
What to do about:
- feeling sick take nitrofurantoin with or after a meal or snack. It may also help if you avoid rich or spicy food.
- being sick and diarrhoea drink lots of fluids, such as water or squash to avoid dehydration. Take small, frequent sips if you feel sick. Signs of dehydration include peeing less than usual or having strong-smelling pee. Do not take any other medicines to treat diarrhoea or vomiting without speaking to a pharmacist or doctor.
- loss of appetite eat when you would usually expect to be hungry. If it helps, eat smaller meals more often than usual. Snack when youre hungry. Have nutritious snacks that are high in calories and protein, such as dried fruit and nuts.
- headaches make sure you rest and drink plenty of fluids. Do not drink too much alcohol. Painkillers you can buy without a prescription, such as paracetamol and ibuprofen, are safe to take with nitrofurantoin. Speak to your doctor if these do not help with the headaches or the headaches are severe.
- dizziness or feeling sleepy if nitrofurantoin makes you feel dizzy, stop what youre doing and sit or lie down until you feel better.
Editorial Sources And Fact
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Can You Boost Cephalexin Performance
However, if you truly want Cephalexin to work, make sure to boost the performance of antibiotics with bacterial biofilm enzymes and a diet that keeps your urine alkaline.
Havent heard about bacterial biofilms? In a nutshell, the bacteria group together on the surface of your bladder and release slime to protect themselves from antibiotics.
What to expect when taking Cephalexin?
- Once you start taking antibiotics, you should feel better within the first 8-12 hours. However, make sure to finish all pills regardless of how well you feel.
- If you are not feeling better or if your symptoms are getting worse, if you start having any flank pain, or feel nausea and weakness, call your doctor.
- Cephalexin might not work if you have a type of bacteria that are resistant to this antibiotic. However, in some cases, resistance could be mistaken with bacterial biofilms.
Treating E Coli Infections That Cause Neonatal Meningitis
While its true that E. coli causes about 20 percent of all neonatal meningitis cases, bacterial meningitis is still considered very rare in developed countries thanks to the success of vaccines.
If neonatal meningitis is suspected, a healthcare professional will draw blood and perform a spinal tap in order to test spinal fluid for the E. coli bacteria. If bacterial meningitis is confirmed, treatment would consist of IV antibiotics and fluids.
With early diagnosis and proper treatment, a child with bacterial meningitis has a reasonable chance of a good recovery.
Additional reporting by Joseph Bennington-Castro.
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Question : What Are Preferred Antibiotics For The Treatment Of Uncomplicated Cystitis Caused By Cre
Recommendation: Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, or a single-dose of an aminoglycoside are preferred treatment options for uncomplicated cystitis caused by CRE. Standard infusion meropenem is a preferred treatment option for cystitis caused by CRE resistant to ertapenem but susceptible to meropenem, when carbapenemase testing results are either not available or negative.
Rationale: Clinical trial data evaluating the efficacy of most preferred agents for CRE cystitis are not available. However, as these agents achieve high concentrations in urine, they are expected to be effective for CRE cystitis, when active. Some agents that are listed as alternative options for ESBL-E cystitis are recommended as preferred agents for CRE cystitis. These agents are preferably avoided in treatment of ESBL-E cystitis in order to preserve their activity for more invasive infections. They are preferred agents against CRE cystitis because there are generally fewer treatment options against these infections.
Meropenem is a preferred agent against CRE cystitis for isolates that remain susceptible to meropenem, since most of these isolates do not produce carbapenemases . Meropenem should be avoided if carbapenemase testing is positive, even if susceptibility to meropenem is demonstrated.
Took Antibiotics Some Uti Symptoms Resolved Other Symptoms Still Linger
So why if it wasnt a UTI, the prescribed antibiotics worked and you did feel a relief? Well, there could be at least three reasons:
Dr. Hawes hypothesizes that it could be due to some sort of a side-effect from Cipro: perhaps, the medicine does something else to the body besides killing bacteria that could indeed reduce UTI-like symptoms.
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Treatment Length For All Utis
No matter what kind of bacterial infection you have and where its located, the best antibiotic treatment for UTI is generally the shortest one. This is to lower your odds of developing antibiotic resistance and to decrease your risk of a yeast infection or infectious diarrhea.
Still, its imperative that you take all the antibiotics prescribed, even after symptoms subside. Most UTIs resolve within three to 10 days. Stopping your antibiotics early, before the drugs eliminate all bacteria, can create a breeding ground for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, too.
A Note About Sex And Gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms, male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .
A UTI is an infection in any part of the urinary tract. The urinary tract is the bodys drainage system for removing urine. It consists of :
- The kidneys: organs that filter waste from the blood and produce 12 quarts of urine per day
- The ureters: the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder
- The bladder: the organ that stores urine
- The urethra: a tube at the bottom of the bladder that allows urine to exit the body
Most UTIs occur as a result of bacteria such as Escherichia coli . However, other types of pathogens, such as viruses and fungi, can also cause UTIs.
A UTI may occur when a pathogen enters the urethra and infects any part of the urinary tract. The infection can irritate the lining of the urinary tract, leading to symptoms
resistant infections that do not respond to traditional treatments and are more likely to result in potential complications.
Doctors may prescribe different antibiotics depending on whether the UTI is simple or complicated.
The type of antibiotic, the dose, and the length of treatment a doctor prescribes will depend on a persons health status and the bacteria found in the urine culture. For example, treatment for complicated UTIs may take 714 days and require broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics as well as hospitalization.
Doctors may prescribe the following first-line antibiotics for uncomplicated UTIs:
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Preventing Utis And Yeast Infections
Urinary tract infections and yeast infections can be safely and easily treated. However, if you have experienced either of these conditions, you know just how uncomfortable they can be.
Luckily, there are some things you can do to try to prevent these infections.
In addition to staying hydrated, proper bathroom hygiene, such as remembering to wipe from front to back, can reduce the chance of bacteria entering the urinary tract.
Urinating after sex naturally flushes bacteria from your urinary tract that may have found their way there during intercourse.
Avoid using douches or sprays, as they can kill good bacteria that keeps your .
Wear underwear and clothing that is made from natural materials to prevent bacteria or yeast buildup.
When exercising or after enduring a hot day, be sure to change out of sweaty clothes and shower as soon as you can.
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Common Dental Emergencies And Their First Aid
Some of the most common types of dental emergencies include, but are certainly not limited to, things like the following:
- A tooth that has been knocked out. If this happens to you, you need to take action quickly. Take the tooth by its crown and rinse it gently. If you can reinsert it into the socket, do it. If you cant, put it in a container of milk. Milks chemical composition is compatible with teeth, so placing your tooth in a glass of milk helps preserve your tooth. Then take it with you to the dentist. If you act fast, theyll likely be able to save it.
- A chipped or cracked tooth. Clean your mouth with warm clean water, and apply a cold compress to your face to help keep the swelling down. Take a pain reliever and head to the dentist at your first opportunity.
- An abscessed tooth. This can easily cause worse problems if youre not careful, ranging from a significant toothache to a high fever. Rinse your mouth with mild salt water a few times and see your dentist.
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Possible Side Effects Of Amoxicillin
Like many antibiotics, amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium may cause some common side effects.
These newer drugs are not associated with antibiotic resistance yet.
However, they are used more sparingly to prevent the development of multi-drug resistance.
Our physicians can prescribe antibiotics for various conditions, but only if necessary. Chat with a provider to see which treatment option is best for you.
What Should I Eat If I Have E Coli
Drink clear fluids for several days. Make sure that some of these fluids are packed with electrolytes, such as broth or soup. Two or three days after the onset of symptoms, diarrhea may ease off. Re-introduce solid foods back into the diet gradually. Bland foods such as rice, toast, and eggs are best. Avoid high-fiber foods, dairy, spicy foods, and fatty foods.
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What Is A Urinary Tract Infection
If you have ever experienced the frequent urge to go the bathroom with painful and burning urination, you have probably experienced a urinary tract infection . UTIs are one of the most common types of infections, accounting for over 10 million visits to health care providers each year. Roughly 40% of women experience a UTI at some time, and in women, it is the most common infection. Healthcare costs related to UTIs exceed $1.6 billion per year.
A urinary tract infection can happen anywhere along your urinary tract, which includes the kidneys , the ureters , the bladder , or the urethra . Most UTIs occur in the bladder and urethra. Common symptoms include frequent need to urinate, burning while urinating, and pain in lower abdomen area.
There are different types of UTIs based on where the bacteria goes. A lower urinary tract infection occurs when bacteria gets into the urethra and is deposited up into the bladder — this is called cystitis. Infections that get past the bladder and up into the kidneys are called pyelonephritis.
Urinary tract infection symptoms may include:
- Pain or burning upon urination
- A frequent or urgent need to urinate
- Passing small amounts of urine
- Blood in the urine or or pink-stained urine
- Urines that looks cloudy
- Strong-smelling urine
- Pain, cramping in the pelvis or pubic bone area, especially in women
Upper UTIs which include the kidney may also present with symptoms of fever, chills, back or side pain, and nausea or vomiting.