Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria
Studies were included in this review if they: investigated breakthrough infection after vaccination or reinfection after an initial infection and reported the number of cases of initial infection and reinfection and the number of severe cases.
Studies were excluded if they: did not report data of the cases or did not report clinical severity data.
In addition, based on the site and date of the study, we determined whether the study groups overlapped, and if so, only the study with the largest population was included.
Gardasil 9 For Boys And Men
Gardasil 9 is best known for preventing cervical cancer in females.* However, human papillomavirus , the virus that Gardasil protects against, can also affect males.*
* Sex and gender exist on spectrums. Use of the terms male and female in this article refers to sex assigned at birth.
The Gardasil 9 dosage your doctor prescribes will depend on several factors. These include:
- other risk factors you may have
The following information describes vaccine schedules that are commonly used or recommended. However, be sure to get Gardasil 9 as your doctor recommends for you. Your doctor will determine the best time to get the vaccine and the best schedule to fit your needs.
Typically, your doctor or pharmacist will give you the vaccine. They will also tell you when to come back for your next dose or doses. Its important to complete the entire vaccine series to get the most protection from it.
Question: What Do I Need To Do If I Want To Be Vaccinated With The 9
Answer: Clinical studies have assured both efficacy and safety of the 9-valent HPV vaccine after receiving GARDASIL® or CERVARIX® longer than a year. However, there are some studies that ensure vaccine safety even though it has been given in less than 12 months after the administration of GARDASIL® or CERVARIX®.
In conclusion, the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines are aimed at protecting against high-risk HPV type 16 and 18, resulting in less chance of developing precancerous changes, defined as Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or cervical dysplasia. CIN is characterized by a premalignant condition of the cervix and usually detected by screening with cytological test and HPV testing. If left untreated, CIN can develop into invasive cervical cancer. However, the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines can only minimize the chance of developing high grade CIN e.g. CIN II-III, there are still some possibilities of developing low grade lesion e.g. CIN I. In addition, they do not prevent the infection of other HPV strains that possibly cause other diseases. Therefore, the novel 9-valent HPV vaccine covers broader spectrum, targeting 9 HPV strains grouped in high-risk HPV that most commonly cause cervical cancer and other cancers as well as genital warts. Nevertheless, individual benefits obtained from the 9-valent HPV vaccine should be further discussed among different females.
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The Vaccine Is Very Very Effective
If you are vaccinated before being exposed to the virus, the HPV vaccine is 97 percent effective in preventing cervical cancer and cell changes that could lead to cancer. Plus, its almost 100 percent effective in preventing external genital warts.
The vaccine we use now protects against nine of the highest-risk HPV strains. This includes the strains that cause the majority of cervical pre-cancers and cancers, and the strains that cause the majority of external lesions and genital warts.
Hpv Vaccine Boosts Immune Memory
Itâs long been known that the vaccine against the human papilloma virus offers protection when administered to those whoâd never experienced HPV infection. But new research suggests the possibility that it could also help those whoâd been previously infected to guard against re-infection, according to results recently published in EBioMedicine.
Vaccines are designed to create immunity, also known as immune memory, to keep infection at bay. Researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have found that the HPV vaccine helps the immune system ârememberâ the virus better than natural HPV infection itself. A single dose of the vaccine appears to improve immune memory in those previously infected with HPV, raising the possibility that the vaccine could help prevent re-infection.
Until now, whether the vaccine could benefit those who had already experienced HPV infection was unknown, said senior author Dr. Denise Galloway, a virologist at Fred Hutch whose work linking HPV to cervical cancer and development of virus-like particles helped pave the way to the vaccine.
âWe wondered if we gave vaccine, could you boost that immunity?â said Galloway. âAnd the answer to that was definitely yes.â
A memorable vaccine
The researchers found that in most of the individuals, vaccination increased the quantity and quality of HPV immunity. Levels of antibodies against HPV16 in four of the vaccinated individuals increased, an average of 77-fold.
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Will Side Effects Be Different For Anyone Who Has Recently Recovered From Covid
While it’s not a hard-and-fast rule, CDC officers have made recommendations to Americans to consider delaying receiving this bivalent booster vaccine at least three months from the date of your last COVID-19 infection. According to materials published by the American Medical Association, research on the timing between infection and another injection indicates that an increased timeline in this range could better bolster your body’s immune response compared to receiving a shot earlier.
But if you do choose to receive a bivalent booster within three months of your last sickness, you shouldn’t expect to experience wildly different or worse side effects as compared to if you had waited, Dr. Martinello stresses. You also shouldn’t expect a lighter immune response, either.
“I encourage people who have had COVID once, or even multiple times to still seek out vaccination, as it’s going to really optimize the level of protection that you have against getting COVID yet again this fall and winter,” he advises.
How Is The Hpv Vaccine Given
The HPV vaccine is given as 2 injections into the upper arm spaced at least 6 months apart.
It’s important to have both doses of the vaccine to be properly protected.
If you missed the HPV vaccine offered in school Year 8, you can get it for free up until your 25th birthday.
Men who have sex with men , and trans men and trans women who are eligible for the vaccine, will also need 2 doses of the vaccine given 6 months apart.
MSM who are HIV positive or have a weakened immune system need to have 3 doses of the HPV vaccine.
If you need 3 doses of the vaccine:
- the 2nd dose should be given at least 1 month after the 1st dose
- the 3rd dose should be given at least 3 months after the 2nd dose
It’s important to have all vaccine doses to be properly protected.
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How Many Doses Of Hpv Vaccine Are Needed
The HPV vaccine is given as a series of shots. ACIP specifies different dosing schedules, depending on the age when the vaccination series is started . Children who start the vaccine series before their 15th birthday need only two doses to be fully protected. People who start the series at age 15 or older and people who have certain conditions that weaken the immune system need three doses to be fully protected.
Researchers are currently investigating whether a single dose of HPV vaccine might be effective. See What research is being done on strategies to prevent HPV infection?
How Many Shots Are There For The Hpv Vaccine
The vaccine is given in a series. The number of shots you need varies depending on the age you are at your first dose.
- Anyone getting the vaccine prior to age 15 needs two doses of the HPV vaccine to be fully protected. They should be given six to twelve months apart.
- If you are 15 through 26 years old, you need three doses. You will need a second dose one to two months after your first dose. Then you will need a third dose six months after the first dose.
How Long Does Protection Last
HPV vaccine offers long-lasting protection against HPV infection and HPV associated disease. Protection produced by HPV vaccine lasts at least 8-10 years, according to data from clinical trials and ongoing research. There is no evidence to suggest that HPV vaccine loses the ability to provide protection over time. Research will continue to determine how long the vaccine’s protection lasts.
Like all vaccines, HPV vaccine is monitored continually to make sure it remains safe and effective. If protection doesn’t last as long as it should, then the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices would review the data and determine if a booster shot should be recommended.
Should Everyone Within The Approved Age Groups Get Vaccinated
Dr. Aragones: Yes, everyone eligible should get the vaccine. The current recommendation for those ages 26 to 45 is to discuss the benefits of the vaccine with their primary care doctor. The point is that there are still many benefits from getting the vaccine at that age, and my recommendation is to get it. But its still best for children to be vaccinated when they are about 11 or 12 years old. Getting the HPV vaccine before first sexual contact protects a person over their entire life.
Dr. Kriplani: People can acquire different strains of HPV over time. As life and your relationships change, if youre unvaccinated, you can still acquire the higher-risk strains later in life.
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Hpv Vaccine: What Age Is Too Late
All males and females ages 926 should get the HPV vaccine. It is mosteffective when given at ages 1112. Unvaccinated men and women ages2745 should talk to their doctor about the benefits of the vaccine.
Its likely youve heard about the HPV vaccine. This vaccine can protect your child against the human papillomavirus . This virus causes several types of cancer, including cervical, , vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers.
The HPV vaccine is recommended for pre-teens. But why? And does it work for older teens and adults? When it comes to the HPV vaccine, how late is too late?
There are a lot of questions surrounding the HPV vaccine. We spoke with Lois Ramondetta, M.D., professor of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine. Heres what she told us about the age range for the HPV vaccine.
Males and females ages 9 to 45 can get the vaccine
The CDC recommends all boys and girls get the HPV vaccine between the ages of 11 and 12, the age for optimal protection. They should get two shots, six to 12 months apart.
Vaccines given to 14 or 15 year olds are late and less effective, Ramondetta says.
In fact, patients 15 and older should receive three shots over the course of six months to receive the same benefit.
The bottom line: All males and females ages 926 should get the HPV vaccine. It is most effective when given at ages 1112. Unvaccinated men and women ages 2745 should talk to their doctor about the benefits of the vaccine.
Lois Ramondetta, M.D.
Will The Vaccine Help If I Already Have Hpv
The vaccine won’t cure any HPV infection you already have. However, there are many strains of HPV, so you should still get the vaccine to protect you against other strains you may not have been exposed to yet.
If you have already had sex but don’t know if you have HPV, you should still get the HPV vaccine. HPV infection usually happens soon after someone has sex for the first time, but a person might not have been exposed to any or all of the HPV types that are in the vaccine. Anyone in the age groups recommended for vaccination is likely to get some protection from the vaccine.
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Hpv Vaccination For Men Who Have Sex With Men
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men have not benefitted in the same way from the longstanding girls’ programme, so may be left unprotected against HPV.
Since April 2018, MSM up to and including 45 years of age have been eligible for free HPV vaccination on the NHS when they visit specialist sexual health services and HIV clinics in England.
Ask the doctor or nurse at the clinic for more details.
How Long Does The Hpv Vaccine Protect For
Studies have shown that the vaccine protects against HPV infection for at least 10 years, although experts expect protection to last for much longer.
But because the HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, it’s important that all women who receive the HPV vaccine also have regular cervical screening once they reach the age of 25.
How Is Gardasil 9 Vaccine Given
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle in your upper arm or thigh. A healthcare provider will give you this injection.
Gardasil 9 vaccine is given in a series of 2 or 3 shots. You may have the first shot at any time as long as you are between the ages of 9 and 45 years. The second dose is given 2 to 6 months after your first shot. A third dose may be given 6 months after your first shot.
Be sure to receive all recommended doses of this vaccine or you may not be fully protected against disease.
How Gardasil 9 Is Given
You should get Gardasil 9 according to your doctor or healthcare professionals instructions.
The Gardasil 9 vaccine is given by your doctor or pharmacist as either a two-shot or three-shot series.
Whether you get two or three shots depends on your age, the time between each vaccination, and your doctors recommendation. The vaccine is given as a shot that goes into your muscle, usually in your upper arm.
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Is Hpv Testing Needed Before Getting The Vaccine
No. In fact, testing is not recommended because it cannot show if the HPV vaccine will be effective or not. A positive HPV test result doesnt always tell you which types of HPV you have. And even if you are infected with one type of HPV, the vaccine could still prevent other types of HPV infection. A negative test result cannot tell you if youve had HPV in the past.
The American Cancer Societys Recommendations For Hpv Vaccine Use
- Girls and boys should get 2 doses of the HPV vaccine between the ages of 9 to 12.
- Teens and young adults age 13 through 26 who have not been vaccinated, or who havent gotten all their doses, should get the vaccine as soon as possible. Vaccination of young adults will not prevent as many cancers as vaccination of children and teens.
- The ACS does not recommend HPV vaccination for persons older than age 26 years.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in health care check-ups and annual physicals being put on hold, including visits for routine vaccinations. Learn important information that can help you plan a safe return to well-child visits in Getting Essential Childhood and Adolescent Vaccines During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
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Potential Bivalent Omicron Booster Vaccine Side Effects To Anticipate
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Newly approved bivalent booster vaccines targeted at Omicron subvariants may prompt a similar group of side effects noted by researchers in earlier formulations.
Americans shouldn’t expect to experience brand new side effects or symptoms and are less likely to have a severe reaction to this new booster vaccine.
Those who have recently recovered from a COVID-19 illness also have special directives to consider before receiving a booster shot, which are outlined below.
Americans are learning more about the new set of bivalent COVID-19 booster vaccines made by teams at Pfizer and Moderna after officials at the Food and Drug Administration authorized its rollout earlier this month. With clinics and pharmacies across the nation now offering vaccination appointments, you may be curious to know more about this updated vaccine and what kind of side effects may be affecting you after the shot.
If you haven’t heard of the term “bivalent” just yet, it refers to the fact that this updated vaccine contains genetic code targeted to the original strain of virus that spreads COVID-19, known as SARS-CoV-2 in addition to parts of the Omicron-based strains that are circulating currently.
How Much Does The Hpv Vaccine Cost
Each dose of the vaccine can cost about $250. Luckily, many health insurance companies cover the HPV vaccine. There are also programs that help some people without insurance get the vaccine for low or no cost.
You deserve to be healthy, regardless of whether you have health insurance. Talk with the staff at your local Planned Parenthood health center or another nurse or doctor to get more information about ways to make the vaccine more affordable.
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Should Hpv Vaccines Be Given To People Who Are Already Infected With Hpv Or Have Cervical Cell Changes
ACIP recommends that people who have an HPV infection and/or an abnormal Pap test result that may indicate an HPV infection should still receive the HPV vaccine if they are in the appropriate age group because the vaccine may protect them against high-risk HPV types that they have not yet acquired. However, these people should be told that the vaccination will not cure them of current HPV infections or treat the abnormal results of their Pap test .
Although HPV vaccines have been found to be safe when given to people who are already infected with HPV, the vaccines provide maximum benefit if a person receives them before he or she is sexually active .
It is likely that someone previously infected with HPV will still get some residual benefit from vaccination, even if he or she has already been infected with one or more of the HPV types included in the vaccines.