Benefits And Uses Of Antibiotics For Cats
Preventing and fighting off bacterial infections is the mainstream use of antibiotics. Namely, a cat that sustained trauma to the skin can be given antibiotics to prevent wound infection, while in case of an abscess, the treatments goal would be to eliminate the already present infection.
However, medications from this group can also be used to combat parasites . For example, antibiotics are an integral component of the treatment plan in cats with Coccidiosis, Giardiasis, and Hemobartonellosis.
Antibiotics can also be prescribed in cats with viral diseases . In such cases, antibiotics are not used to fight off the viruses but to prevent complications and secondary bacterial infections.
Diagnosing A Kidney Infection
Most kidney infection diagnoses require a pee sample. Urinalysis will test for bacteria and white blood cells in your pee. A urine culture will determine what type of bacteria is to blame. This helps your doctor prescribe the right type of antibiotics.
Your doc might also suggest an imaging test like an ultrasound or a computed tomography scan.
Treatments For A Urinary Tract Infection
The type of treatment you are prescribed and the length of time you need to take medicine depends on your health history and the type of bacteria found in your urine.
Amoxicillin comes as a capsule, tablet, or liquid to be taken by mouth. The medicine is taken two or three times a day with or without food. If you have a UTI and are prescribed an antibiotic like amoxicillin, you should start feeling better within a few days. It is important to remember that even though your symptoms may start to subside within a few days, you should continue to take your medicine as prescribed by your doctor. The treatment length depends on your unique circumstances.
A healthy lifestyle that includes methods like regular bathing and good hygiene may help you control and prevent urinary tract infections. These techniques include:
- Choosing NOT to use or feminine hygiene products containing perfumes
- Avoiding bath oils
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What Is The Treatment For A Kidney Infection
- Antibiotics will usually clear the infection. An antibiotic is usually prescribed straightaway if a kidney infection is suspected, even before the result of the urine test is known. Some germs are resistant to some antibiotics. Therefore, sometimes a change of antibiotic may be needed if the urine test shows a germ which is resistant to the initial antibiotic. The course of antibiotics is for 7-14 days, depending on which one is used. Commonly used antibiotics for kidney infections include ciprofloxacin, cefalexin, co-amoxiclav or trimethoprim.
- Painkillers such as paracetamol can ease pain and reduce a high temperature . Stronger painkillers may be needed if the pain is more severe. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen are not usually recommended for a person with a kidney infection. This is because they may possibly cause problems with the working of the kidney during a kidney infection.
- Plenty of fluid should be taken to prevent lack of fluid in the body .
In many cases, the infection is not too severe, treatment can be taken at home and the infection will clear with a course of antibiotic tablets. If treatment is to be home-based, a doctor should be called if the symptoms are not improving after 24 hours, or the person is feeling more unwell.
However, some people need to be admitted to hospital – for example if:
Antibiotics Are They Safe If You Have Chronic Kidney Disease
Many drugs have the ability to damage the kidneys and some are better known for doing this than others. Certain antibiotics fall into this category and are classified as nephrotoxic medications. Lets take a closer look at which antibiotics carry a greater risk of causing kidney damage, how this happens and importantly what you can do to reduce this risk.
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Things You Can Try Yourself
If you have a kidney infection, try not to “hover” over the toilet seat when you go to the loo because it can result in your bladder not being fully emptied.
It’s also important for most people with a kidney infection to drink plenty of fluids because this will help to flush out the bacteria from your kidneys. Aim to drink enough so that you’re frequently passing pale-coloured urine.
If you have kidney failure, get advice from your doctor on how much to drink.
Make sure you get plenty of rest. A kidney infection can be physically draining, even if you’re normally healthy and strong. It may take up to 2 weeks before you’re fit enough to return to work.
What Is A Urinary Tract Infection
If you have ever experienced the frequent urge to go the bathroom with painful and burning urination, you have probably experienced a urinary tract infection . UTIs are one of the most common types of infections, accounting for over 10 million visits to health care providers each year. Roughly 40% of women experience a UTI at some time, and in women, it is the most common infection. Healthcare costs related to UTIs exceed $1.6 billion per year.
A urinary tract infection can happen anywhere along your urinary tract, which includes the kidneys , the ureters , the bladder , or the urethra . Most UTIs occur in the bladder and urethra. Common symptoms include frequent need to urinate, burning while urinating, and pain in lower abdomen area.
There are different types of UTIs based on where the bacteria goes. A lower urinary tract infection occurs when bacteria gets into the urethra and is deposited up into the bladder — this is called cystitis. Infections that get past the bladder and up into the kidneys are called pyelonephritis.
Urinary tract infection symptoms may include:
- Pain or burning upon urination
- A frequent or urgent need to urinate
- Passing small amounts of urine
- Blood in the urine or or pink-stained urine
- Urines that looks cloudy
- Strong-smelling urine
- Pain, cramping in the pelvis or pubic bone area, especially in women
Upper UTIs which include the kidney may also present with symptoms of fever, chills, back or side pain, and nausea or vomiting.
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How Is A Kidney Infection Diagnosed
Kidney infection diagnosis is based on physical symptoms and urine testing. Most typically, a kidney infection diagnosis will be made by a general practitioner, urgent care physician, or emergency room physician.
Kidney infection is a type of urinary tract infection, so symptoms will typically include symptoms of a bladder infection such as pain over the pubic area, frequent urination, and cloudy urine. The healthcare professional will look for specific symptoms of a kidney infection in addition to the UTI symptoms:
- Pain in the side or lower back pain
- Costovertebral angle tenderness, which is pain caused by tapping the back above the kidney
Fever, flank pain, and nausea are the strongest indicators of kidney infection.
The diagnosis is confirmed with urinalysis and a urine culture. The urine test will confirm the diagnosis by identifying white blood cells and other substances indicating infection. The urine culture is used to both identify the type of bacteria responsible for the infection and determine its resistance to antibiotics. Both are critical in determining the most effective antibiotic therapy.
Blood tests are not usually ordered for patients with an uncomplicated kidney infection, but blood will be tested for hospitalized patients.
How Can I Treat A Kidney Infection At Home
Treating kidney infection solely at home or with natural remedies is not a good idea. However, several home remedies can help manage the pain while the infection is treated with antibiotics. These include drinking water, using a heating pad to reduce pain, and taking over-the-counter acetaminophen to manage both pain and fever.
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Before Taking This Medicine
Do not use Rocephin in a child without a doctor’s advice, and never give more than the child’s prescribed dose. Rocephin injection can be dangerous when given to a newborn baby with any intravenous medicines that contain calcium, including total parental nutrition .
You should not use this medicine if you have ever had a severe allergic reaction to ceftriaxone or to certain antibiotics, such as:
Why Do Antibiotics Sometimes Not Work For A Urinary Tract Infection
If an antibiotic doesnt work it is likely that the bacteria causing the UTI is not susceptible or is resistant to the antibiotic you are taking.
Antibiotic resistance occurs when the bacteria that is causing the infection is no longer affected by a particular antibiotic and is able to continue to grow and multiply. Inappropriate and unnecessary antibiotic use contributes to the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance.
If you felt better for a little while and then came down with the symptoms of a UTI again, it is also possible that you have a new or recurrent UTI.
Another possibility if you continue to experience symptoms of a UTI despite antibiotic treatment, is that you have another type of infection that mimics that symptoms of a UTI and you need a different antibiotic or other treatment. Sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, for example, produce symptoms that mimic a UTI. Vaginal yeast infections can also cause burning when you pee.
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Which Antibiotic Will Work Best
Your doctor will take a urine sample to confirm that you have a UTI. Then the lab will grow the germs in a dish for a couple of days to find out which type of bacteria you have. This is called a culture. Itâll tell your doctor what type of germs caused your infection. Theyâll likely prescribe one of the following antibiotics to treat it before the culture comes back:
Which medication and dose you get depends on whether your infection is complicated or uncomplicated.
âUncomplicatedâ means your urinary tract is normal. âComplicatedâ means you have a disease or problem with your urinary tract. You could have a narrowing of your ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder, a narrowing in the urethra which transports urine from the bladder out of the body, or, you might have a blockage like a kidney stone or an enlarged prostate . It’s also possible you have a urinary fistula or a bladder diverticulum.
To treat a complicated infection, your doctor might prescribe a higher dose of antibiotics. If your UTI is severe or the infection is in your kidneys, you might need to be treated in a hospital or doctor’s office with high-dose antibiotics you get through an IV.
Your doctor will also consider these factors when choosing an antibiotic:
- Are you over age 65?
- Are you allergic to any antibiotics?
- Have you had any side effects from antibiotics in the past?
Skin And Soft Tissue Infections
In multiple studies, no difference in clinical resolution of cellulitis has been demonstrated between IV and oral antibiotics for simple cellulitis.6-8 One study, a RCT, found no difference in convenience, complications, effectiveness, overall satisfaction, and mean time to cessation of advancement of cellulitis between oral and IV antibiotics.8 A Cochrane review of 25 studies including 2,588 patients comparing oral and IV antibiotics for uncomplicated cellulitis looking at symptoms rated by participant or medical practitioner or proportion symptom-free found that IV antibiotics were no better than oral ones. In fact, two of the studies suggested that oral antibiotics were more effective!9
This comports with the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommendation that IV antibiotics for nonpurulent cellulitis be reserved for patients who are immunocompromised or have systemic signs of infection, hemodynamic instability, or altered mental status.10 In fact, adherence to this guideline has recently been shown to reduce treatment failure rates in ED patients.11 In a recent retrospective chart review of 500 patients, independent predictors of oral antibiotic treatment failure for nonpurulent and soft tissue infections included tachypnea at triage, the presence of chronic ulcers, history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection, previous recent cellulitis , chronic kidney disease, and diabetes.12
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How Do Antibiotics For Cats Work
Antibiotics for cats work by fighting off bacterial infections. To be more precise, antibiotics have two modes of action some are bactericidal, and others are bacteriostatic.
Bactericidal antibiotics work by killing bacteria directly, while bacteriostatic antibiotics simply inhibit bacterial growth. Beta-lactams is an example of bactericidal agents, while tetracycline is bacteriostatic.
How Can I Make Sure My Kidney Infection Is Completely Gone
If you recently had a kidney infection, the health care professional will often repeat urine cultures after your treatment ends to make sure your infection has completely gone away and has not come back. If a repeat test shows infection, you may take another round of antibiotics. If your infection comes back again, he or she may prescribe antibiotics for a longer time period.
If your health care professional prescribes antibiotics, take all of the antibiotics as prescribed and follow the advice of the health care professional. Even if you start to feel better, you should finish all of your medicine.
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What Are The Symptoms Of An Acute Kidney Infection
Signs and symptoms vary with age:
- Newborns: no fever but poor feeding and vomiting
- Children < 2: may have a fever , a poor appetite, vomiting and diarrhea
- Children > 2: fever, appetite changes, stomach or lower back pain, symptoms of urgency, frequency and pain with urination
If a toilet trained child is having accidents during the day or night, it may be a sign of an infection. Typically a childs urine will have a strong, foul odor, and there may be blood in the urine.
When Should I Go To The Doctor
A kidney infection can develop quite quickly over a few hours or days, so dont wait to see the doctor. Any of the above symptoms of a UTI or kidney infection should trigger a visit to your doctor for a proper evaluation and diagnosis.
A doctor will analyze a sample of your urine. If you test positive for a kidney infection, youll be prescribed oral antibiotics and, in some cases, a medication that helps relieve pain with urination. If treated promptly, a kidney infection shouldnt cause serious harm.
If you experience a fever over 101°F, pain, are unable to drink or take oral medication along with some of the other symptoms, get to the nearest urgent care or ER. For more serious infections, your doctor may keep you in the hospital for observation with IV antibiotics followed by outpatient oral antibiotics.
After completing the full course of prescribed antibiotics, you should feel better. If you dont, talk to your doctor, as you may need another course of antibiotics.
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Antibiotics For Cats Usage Guidelines
To decrease the risk of side effects and ensure efficient antibiotic use, it is paramount to follow the veterinarians instructions in terms of antibiotic type, dose, administration frequency, and usage method.
It is also important not to be misguided by antibiotic uses in humans. The same antibiotic can be used in humans and cats for the same condition but in a different manner. For example, lets take UTIs. According to the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases recommendations, the length of the antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated UTIs is seven days while for complicated cases up to 4 weeks .
Antibiotics are available in different forms, including capsules, tablets, oral liquids, injections , and topicals . Talk to your vet about which form is easy for you to give and acceptable for your pet.
Before prescribing antibiotics, the veterinarian will consider other medications your cat might be receiving. Certain antibiotics can interact with other meds such as:
- NSAIDs and steroids
- Diuretics and ACE inhibitors
Finally, we should say a word or two about natural alternatives for antibiotics. Certain herbs and foods like Manuka honey, bee propolis, colloidal silver, Echinacea, and juniper berry have strong antibacterial properties. However, whether they can fully replace traditional antibiotics and resolve your cats infection, is something you should discuss with the vet.
Forming A Treatment Guideline Committee
The development committee consisted of a chairman and five committee members recommended by the Korean Society for Chemotherapy and the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, one committee member recommended by the Korean Association of Urogenital Tract Infection and Inflammation, two committee members recommended by the Korean Urological Association, and two committee members recommended by the Korean Society of Nephrology.
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Other Urinary Tract Antibiotics
There are other prescription antibiotics that may be administered for urinary tract infections however are not specifically for treating kidney infections. For example, Macrobid is particularly for dealing with bladder infections and must not be used for kidney infections although it minimizes the growth of bacteria in similar ways that kidney infection antibiotics will. Make certain you consult your physician to verify where the infection is located along the urinary tract prior to deciding in between macrobid or kidney infection prescription antibiotics.
Oral Versus Parenteral Administration
Growing data suggest that oral antibiotic therapy, parenteral antibiotic therapy, and initial parenteral antibiotic therapy followed by oral antibiotic therapy are equally effective regimens, although most of the studies have been small. Some clinicians believe that initiating therapy with an intravenous or intramuscular dose of medication reduces the risk of therapeutic failure other clinicians believe that a completely oral course is sufficient. Data exist to support both assertions.
One conventional regimen comprises levofloxacin, 500 mg/day, given intravenously and then orally for 7-14 days. A short-course regimen of intravenous levofloxacin at 750 mg/day for 5 days proved non-inferior to that conventional regimen in a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial in 317 Chinese patients with complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis.
To be considered for oral therapy, patients must meet several prerequisites. They must, of course, be able to tolerate oral medication. In addition, they must have no indication for admission, and close monitoring to ensure good compliance must be possible.
The 2010 guidelines from the Infectious Disease Society of America recommend that women with pyelonephritis who require hospitalization be treated initially with an intravenous antimicrobial regimen. The choice of antimicrobial agents should be based on local resistance data, with the regimen tailored on the basis of susceptibility results.
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