Signs And Symptoms Of Sinusitis:
A case of acute sinusitis presents with the following signs and symptoms:
- Facial pain and tenderness on pressure
- Nasal congestion
- Nasal obstruction or runny nose
- Yellowish post-nasal discharge into the throat
- Loss of sense of smell
- Pain in frontal region of head or between the eyes
- Aching in upper jaw or teeth
- Occasionally facial swelling may also be present
- Constitutional signs and symptoms like fever, loss of appetite, bodyache and generalized weakness may be present.
- Pain. Pressure or fullness in the ears.
What Is A Sinus
The sinuses are also called the paranasal sinuses because they are hollow, air-filled spaces present within bones around the nasal cavity . The paranasal sinuses drain into the nasal cavity.
Sinuses are present in pairs. They are:
- Frontal Sinus Above and between the eyes
- Maxillary Sinus Over the cheeks
- Sphenoidal Sinus Between the eyes and upper part of nose
- Ethmoidal Sinus Between the eyes and near the temples
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Is A Sinus Infection Bacterial
A sinus infection can be a miserable experiencepainful pressure in the face, headache, body aches, postnasal drip, fever, and congestion. But is a sinus infection bacterial or viral? It actually can be eitheror both! The symptoms for viral and bacterial sinus infections can be similar, but the treatments may be different. Lets take a closer look at how you might be able to tell them apart, and what you can do for treatment.
The sinuses are spaces in the bones of the face, located around the eyes, in the forehead and cheekbones, and behind the nose. Their primary function is to produce mucus, moisturizing the nose and protecting both the nose and sinuses from germs, dirt, dust and other irritants. When everything is working as it should, this mucus drains freely from the nose and sinuses. A sinus infection, or sinusitis, occurs when there is inflammation of the sinuses. The mucus becomes thick and unable to flow into the nose, causing build-up in the sinuses themselves.
Most sinus infections are viral, but viral sinusitis can develop into a secondary bacterial infection when bacteria becomes trapped in the sinuses and colonizes due to inflammation preventing proper drainage. Many different types of bacteria can cause sinusitis. Some of the most common bacterial culprits for sinus infections include:
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Home Remedies For Sinus Infection:
Uncomplicated acute sinus infection can be treated at home. Or home remedies can also be used along with conventional medical therapy.
Rest Take adequate rest as your body is already working enough to fight infection. Another reason to get good rest is so that you dont spread the infection at your workplace, school or institution.
Water Drink plenty to water to not just stay hydrated but water also helps to flush out toxins from the body making recovery easier.
Steam Inhaling steam decongests your air passages allowing the sinuses to drain easily.
Essential Oil Menthol is a well-known essential oil for blocked sinuses. It can be used along with steam to inhale.
Kitchen Herbs Our kitchen itself can provide the best of natural remedies to fight infections. You can use natural anti-infective and anti-inflammatory herbs like turmeric, ginger, and garlic.
When To Go To The Doctor For A Sinus Infection
Sinusitis belongs to upper respiratory tract infections. It is one of the commonest and a relatively troublesome condition one can have. Yet, it is also one of those infections which patients often attempt to treat at home.
So before you understand when to go to the doctor for a sinus infection, it would be worthwhile to go through a few basic facts about sinuses their infections and how to recognize which sinus is infected.
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Runny Nose And Postnasal Drip
When you have a sinus infection, you may need to blow your nose often because of nasal discharge, which can be cloudy, green, or yellow. This discharge comes from your infected sinuses and drains into your nasal passages.
The discharge may also bypass your nose and drain down the back of your throat. You may feel a tickle, an itch, or even a sore throat.
This is called postnasal drip, and it may cause you to cough at night when youre lying down to sleep, and in the morning after getting up. It may also cause your voice to sound hoarse.
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Related Conditions And Causes Of Sinus Infections
Colds, allergies, and sinus infections can cause similar symptoms, including stuffiness and headache. What’s more, both colds and allergies can cause sinus inflammation. So how can you tell the difference between these illnesses?
The truth is, even doctors can sometimes have difficulty differentiating among colds, allergies, and sinus infections. But the illnesses do present differently.
A hallmark sign that you have a sinus infection is that the illness is, as you’d expect, severely affecting your sinuses. Both colds and allergies can cause congestion and runny nose, but sinus infections typically cause an aching sensation and pressure in the face, including in the ears and teeth.
Additionally, postnasal drop, reduced sense of smell, and halitosis are typically associated with sinus infections.
The mucus associated with a sinus infection is usually green or yellow, though color alone isn’t enough to determine the cause of your nasal distress, as there are many reasons your nasal discharge may not be clear.
Both allergies and colds can cause sneezing, a symptom not typically seen in sinus infections. Allergies never cause fever, which is seen in both colds and sinus infections.
And if your symptoms last more than 10 days, you most likely don’t have a cold.
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When Sinus Infections Become Sinusitis
You know the feeling: runny nose, headache, sinus congestion. Is it just a cold? Or something more serious? If its a sinus infection, thats a much more serious condition. About 31 million Americans suffer from chronic sinus infections known as sinusitis.1 If youre one of them and continue to battle sinus pain, headaches, and emotional drain for 12 weeks or more no matter what treatments you try, you may be dealing with chronic rhinosinusitis .1,2
When Does A Sinus Infection Require Visiting An Urgent Care
Sinuses are cavities or spaces in the head that are interconnected by channels. Sinuses produce mucus, which keeps the nose clean and free of bacteria. However, the sinuses can become infected, and instead of pockets of just air, they become clogged with thick mucus.
A mild case of sinus infection can be treated at home. If what you have is a severe sinus infection, leave it to a medical professional to effectively treat it.
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I Use The Quadrupedal Position
“If my facial pain or pressure is intense, I sometimes put my head towards the floor while on my hands and knees,” Dr. Kamat says. This is what’s called a quadrupedal position .
“The position of the cheek sinus opening is high along the nasal wall and known to be poor for natural or passive drainage due to gravity,” Dr. Kamat says. “In this position, the opening is better able to drain, and has been shown to reduce the duration of a sinus infection.”
Complications Of Sinus Infection
Sinus inflammation can spread to the bones and soft tissues of the face and eyes. This can cause:
- Cellulitis of the face or around the eyes
- Abscesses of the eyes
Left intreated, sinus infections can also lead to serious intracranial complications, including blood clots within the cavernous sinus, pus between the skulls and dura mater , and meningitis.
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What Is A Sinus Infection Or Sinusitis
Inflammation of the air cavities within the passages of the nose is referred to as sinusitis. Sinusitis can be caused by infection , but also can be caused by allergy and chemical irritation of the sinuses. A sinus infection occurs when a virus, bacterium, or fungus grows within a sinus.
- Sinusitis is one of the more common conditions that can afflict people throughout their lives.
- Sinusitis commonly occurs when environmental pollens irritate the nasal passages, such as with hay fever.
- Sinusitis can also result from irritants, such as chemicals or the use and/or abuse of over-the-counter nasal sprays, and
- illegal substances that may be snorted or inhaled through the nose.
About 30 million adults have “sinusitis.” Colds differ from sinusitis and are only caused by viruses and last about seven to 10 days while sinusitis may have many different causes , and usually last longer with more pronounced and variable symptoms.
Risk Factors For Sinusitis
The main risk factor for a sinus infection is having a cold or hay fever, which leads to inflammation and blockage in the sinuses.
Risk for sinusitis is also higher in those with a deviated septum or narrow sinus structure, which allows fluid to more easily get trapped.
If you have a medical condition such as cystic fibrosis or weakened immune system, you also are more likely to develop a sinus infection.
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How Can I Tell If I Have A Sinus Infection Cold Or Nasal Allergy
It can be difficult to tell the difference between a cold, allergies, and a sinus infection. The common cold typically builds, peaks, and slowly disappears. It lasts a few days to a week. A cold can transform into a sinus infection. Nasal allergy is inflammation of the nose due to irritating particles . Symptoms of a nasal allergy can include sneezing, itchy nose and eyes, congestion, runny nose, and post nasal drip . Sinusitis and allergy symptoms can happen at the same time as a common cold.
If you are fighting off a cold and develop symptoms of a sinus infection or nasal allergy, see your healthcare provider. You will be asked to describe your symptoms and medical history.
What To Do For Chronic Sinusitis
If youre suffering from chronic sinusitis or you are getting frequent sinus infections you should see your doctor, says Dr. Sindwani.
Your doctor will swab your nose to collect mucus. Culturing it in a laboratory will reveal which type of bacteria is causing the infection so the right antibiotic can be prescribed.
Treat early sinus infection symptoms with rest, hydration and over-the-counter sprays and decongestants. But dont look for an antibiotic unless your illness extends beyond a week, he says. Then check in with your doctor for a prescription and let him or her know if your condition worsens.
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How Can I Prevent Sinusitis
Some of the home remedies used to treat sinus infections symptoms may help prevent sinusitis. These include rinsing your nose out with salt water and using medications that your provider might suggest, such as allergy medications or steroid nasal sprays.
You should avoid things you are allergic to, like dust, pollen or smoke, and try to avoid sick people. Wash your hands to reduce your chance of getting a cold or flu.
Chronic Sinus Infection Treatment
Chronic sinus infections typically have a more mysterious cause than acute infections people with chronic sinus infections often require life-long treatment to keep symptoms at bay.
In addition to the options above, treatment for chronic sinus infections may include:
- Lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and changing home or work conditions to reduce exposure to environmental toxins and allergens, such as dust mites, pet dander, or cockroaches
- Oral steroids
- Leukotriene modifiers, which reduce inflammation through a different mechanism than steroids
- Surgery to reopen sinuses affected by issues like nasal polyps and deviated septum
Recent research suggests other treatment options may also exist for chronic sinus infections, including:
- Nasal probiotics of the beneficial bacteria lactobacilli
- The drug dupilumab, derived from a human antibody, which the Food and Drug Administration approved to treat chronic sinus infections with nasal polyps in 2019
- A regime combining oral and intranasal corticosteroid irrigations
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Types Of Chronic Sinusitis Or Chronic Sinus Infections
While acute sinusitis often involves an infection, chronic sinusitis does not. Sometimes, the long-term illness is caused by an infection that hasn’t cleared up properly, but most often the exact cause of chronic sinusitis isn’t known.
But clinicians may categorize chronic sinusitis into one of three types depending on the features present.
The most common type of the illness, chronic sinusitis without nasal polyposis, involves swelling and inflammation of the mucous membranes by various non-polyp factors, such as allergies or irritation and infections.
Chronic sinusitis with nasal polyposis, on the other hand, involves nasal polyps that are large enough to clog the sinus. It’s not always clear why some people develop these polyps and others dont.
In chronic sinusitis with fungal allergy, people experience a strong allergic reaction to fungi in the air, which causes their mucous membranes to produce a thick, dense mucus.
How Do I Know If I Have A Sinus Infection
Sinus infections are quite common. Sinus infections can be thought of as either viral or bacterial . When most individuals think of sinus infections, they are thinking of bacterial sinus infections but it is important to remember that sinus infections can be caused by viruses as well. In both cases, the symptoms of a sinus infection, as defined by the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, are purulent nasal drainage that is accompanied by nasal obstruction and/or facial pain-pressure-fullness. According to guidelines, one must have discolored, purulent nasal drainage to meet the criteria of a sinus infection.
Viral sinus infections/”common colds” are more common than bacterial sinus infections. It has been estimated that the average adult will experience 2 to 5 colds per year. Viral sinus infections may produce similar symptoms as bacterial sinus infections: discolored nasal drainage with nasal obstruction and/or facial pain/pressure. However, the key distinguishing factor with respect to symptoms is that with viral sinus infections, the symptoms peak at around day 3 – 5 and begin to improve thereafter . This why it is important to think about both how long sinusitis symptoms have been ongoing as well as their trajectory when it comes to deciding whether the sinusitis is viral or bacterial.
Fever of above 100.5Â°F
Double sickening : when symptoms of a cold are getting better and then worsen as illustrated by the top blue dashed line in Figure 2.
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How Is Sinusitis Treated
Sinusitis is treated in several ways, each depending on how severe the case of sinusitis is.
A simple sinusitis infection is treated with:
- Drinking fluids .
If symptoms of sinusitis don’t improve after 10 days, your doctor may prescribe:
- Antibiotics .
- Oral or topical decongestants.
- Prescription intranasal steroid sprays. .
Long-term sinusitis may be treated by focusing on the underlying condition . This is usually treated with:
- Intranasal steroid sprays.
- Topical antihistamine sprays or oral pills.
- Leukotriene antagonists to reduce swelling and allergy symptoms.
- Rinsing the nose with saline solutions that might also contain other types of medication.
When sinusitis isn’t controlled by one of the above treatments, a CT scan is used to take a better look at your sinuses. Depending on the results, surgery may be needed to correct structural problems in your sinuses. This is most likely to happen if you have polyps and/or a fungal infection.
Prior Viral Infection And Congestion
Heres where doctors have a hard time with sinus infections. The first thing that happens prior to getting a sinus infection is a cold. This cold causes increase mucous. The problem is, this snot gets thick and clogs up the small passageways of your sinuses. When these narrow passageways get clogged up, they sits still, which then gets infected , and the headaches, face pain, and fever can become intense.
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Is A Sinus Infection Contagious
How Will I Know if I Have a Sinus Infection?
The majority of doctors think that most people do not transmit sinus infections except in rare instances, and conclude that sinus infections are not contagious.
Sinus infections usually begin with the symptoms of a cold , and then develop into pain and pressure in the sinus cavities. About 7 to 10 days after initial cold-like symptoms other symptoms develop that suggest you may have a sinus infection. Sinus infection symptoms include
- a yellowish-greenish nasal discharge that may have an odor,
- bad breath,
- pressure in the sinuses, and
Is There A Right Way To Blow Your Nose
If you have a stuffy nose, trying to force yourself to blow your nose could make it worse. The best thing to do is to blow one side of your nose at a time gently into a tissue. You might want to first use some type of nasal rinse to loosen any material in your nose before blowing. Make sure you dispose of the tissue and then clean your hands with soap and water or an antimicrobial sanitizer.
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When To Call Your Doctor
If youâve been sick for 10 days or more with no improvement, or you got slightly better and then got sicker, itâs probably a bacterial infection. Again, youâll need to see your doctor to find out.
If itâs a bacterial sinus infection, you may need antibiotics. You may also get better without medicine, but antibiotics can help things move faster.
Other symptoms of sinusitis include congestion that makes it hard to breathe through your nose, and tenderness around your nose and eyes. If you cough up colored mucus or feel mucus drain down the back of your throat, you could have sinusitis.
You may also think you have a toothache when itâs really a sinus infection. Your upper back teeth are very close to your sinuses, so tooth pain is a very common symptom of a sinus infection. If youâre not sure, check with your doctor or dentist.
If you have any of the above symptoms, and over-the-counter treatments donât help, make a doctorâs appointment soon.
Contact your doctor immediately if you have any of these severe symptoms, which could be signs of a serious infection:
- Swollen face