Sunday, April 14, 2024

Chance Of Hiv Infection From Woman To Man

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Thebody: Hiv Seroconversion: Timeline Symptoms Testing And Treatment

Second HIV patient may have been naturally cured, scientists say

There are several stages of HIV infectionfrom the initial exposure to the virus to the development of AIDSbut a lot of important changes happen during the earliest stage: seroconversion. So, exactly what is HIV seroconversion? It is the stage in which the immune system first starts to make antibodies to try to fight HIV after exposure. Once detectable levels of antibodies are produced, this is described as seroconversion.

Tuesday, May 31, 2022

Um School Of Medicine Receives $2 Million Grant For Hiv Research In Malawi

The University of Maryland School of Medicines Institute for Global Health and the Institute of Human Virology have been awarded a $2 million five-year grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to study the impact exposure to HIV has on the immune systems of infants in utero and how those changes impact the ability of infants to fight off infections after birth.

Tuesday, October 25, 2016

Why Are Women In The Risk Of Hiv

HIV can disproportionately affect women and girls because of their unequal culture, social and economic status in the society. There are many intimate partner violence which has a lot of laws revolving around the practices which reinforces the unequal power dynamics between men and women, which has its own disadvantage.

HIV has a lot to do with women facing significant barriers to accessing healthcare services. These barriers can occur at the individual, interpersonal communities and societal levels. There are many barriers which can take many forms which includes things like denial, which can help one access the female sexuality to have a poor quality of service.

The procedures that are relating to the womens sexual health which can be performed without consent. They are generally subjected to a lot of forced sterilisation and virginity examinations and forced abortions. The healthcare providers also do not understand the laws around childbirth and HIV. This is one of the main reason when HIV positive women choose to have an abortion which can be the result of misinformed care.

In any setting, one can see that there are services which exist which can primarily married women with children and do not meet the specific needs of a young individual. More often than not, these health care provides are not well trained or skilled enough to do a youth-friendly service which will allow one to have an understanding of the age of consent.

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Are Women More Vulnerable To Hiv Infection Than Men

  • Are women more vulnerable to HIV infection than men?

With the global HIV epidemic, women all around communities have been affected by HIV. There are women who constitute more than half of all of the people living with HIV, which involves HIV and AIDS-related illnesses which can remain the leading cause for the death of the women. Young women in the ages of 15 and 24 are somewhere there is a disproportionate number of new HIV infections.

In the year 2007, around 7000, adolescent girls and young women became HIV positive. There is a far higher rate than the new infections which among young men are twice as likely to acquire HIV as their male peers. Regions like Eastern Europe and Central Asia, which has been driven by unsafe injections drug use where people have been disproportionally affected, and the population of women seem to be on the rise.

Ethics Approval And Consent To Participate


The ethical approval was obtained from the Ethiopian Public health Institute Scientific and Ethical review office with approval number EPHI-IRB-187-2020. As the study was conducted using secondary data, study participants were not subject to any harm. During data extraction, no personal identification methods were used on data collection formats. Considering there will be no harm for the study participants and since the data were collected confidentially and given the study will benefit the HIV program in the country, informed consent was waived by the scientific and Ethical review office of the Ethiopian Public Health Institute. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

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How Is Hiv Transmitted Through Needles

HIV isnt transmitted only through sexual contact. Sharing needles also puts a person at higher risk of contracting HIV.

When a needle is injected into a persons body, it breaks the skin barrier. If the needle has already been injected into another person, it can carry traces of their blood, along with any infections they have. The contaminated needle can introduce these infections into the second persons body.

Researchers dont know if having an undetectable viral load reduces the risk of HIV transmission through shared needles, but its reasonable to assume it may provide some risk reduction.

HIV can affect anyone. Whatever their age, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, or race, everyone should take steps to protect themselves. But due to socioeconomic factors, some demographic groups have higher HIV transmission rates and generally are more affected by HIV.

According to the CDC , the general demographic traits most affected by HIV are:

Transgender women are also highly impacted by HIV transmissions as a population, reports the CDC .

These groups are disproportionately affected by HIV, but they arent inherently at greater risk of contracting HIV. An individuals personal risk depends on their behaviors, not on their age, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, race, or any other demographic factor.

What Cdc Is Doing

CDC is pursuing a high-impact HIV prevention approach to maximize the effectiveness of current HIV prevention interventions and strategies. Funding state, territorial, and local health departments and community-based organizations to develop and implement tailored programs is CDCs largest investment in HIV prevention. This includes longstanding successful programs and new efforts funded through the Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. initiative. In addition to funding health departments and CBOs, CDC is also strengthening the HIV prevention workforce and developing HIV communication resources for consumers and health care providers.

a Adult and adolescent men aged 13 and older.b Based on sex at birth and includes transgender people.c HIV diagnoses refers to the number of people who received an HIV diagnosis during a given time period, not when the people got HIV infection.d Unless otherwise noted, the term United States includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 6 dependent areas of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the US Virgin Islands.e The term male-to-male sexual contact is used in CDC surveillance systems. It indicates a behavior that transmits HIV infection, not how individuals self-identify in terms of their sexuality. This fact sheet uses the term gay and bisexual men.f Includes infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use .

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Thebody: What Is Hiv Remission

A cure for HIV remains elusive, but one word that is commonly heard is remission. Even though it doesnt mean eradication of the virus, remission is a good thing. But what exactly is remission? Can HIV go into remission? And how does it differ from a cure? Generally, remission means that a disease has stopped being active but hasnt necessarily been eliminated.

Monday, September 19, 2022

Hiv Plus: One Woman Shares Her Journey Of Living With Hiv For Over Three Decades

South Africa: Young Women at Greater Risk of HIV/AIDS

In honoring long-term survivors and National Women and Girls HIV Awareness Day on March 10, I had the opportunity to speak with Ms. Kathy Bennett. She is a 63-year-old Black woman who has been living with HIV for over 31 years. She recently led the longest running HIV support group in Maryland.

Wednesday, February 16, 2022

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Study Population And Sampling Procedures

EPHIA used a two-stage cluster sampling design with stratification into small and large urban areas. In the first stage 393 enumeration area /clusters were selected using a probability proportional to size method based on EAs created by CSA for the 2007 Ethiopia Population and Housing Census, which included 17,339 EAs containing around three million households. The 393 EAs were further stratified by nine regional states and two city administrations: Tigray, Afar, Amhara, Oromia, Somali, Benishangul Gumuz, SNNPR, Gambella, Harari, Addis Ababa, and Dire Dawa. In second stage sampling, 30 households were randomly selected from each EA using an equal probability method, resulting in a total number of 11,810 households where 19,136 adults reside in.

Ways To Control The Spread

Although, it is a dreaded disease, which is spreading at an alarming rate, people should not worry themselves unnecessarily. An educated and conscious approach is required to curb the spread of the disease. If you take due care and precautions to prevent the spread of HIV, then you need not worry too much about contracting it. And, the simplest way of relieving yourself of all the stress and anxiety is having protected sexual intercourse!

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What Is The Risk Of Hiv From Vaginal Sex

Multiple vulnerabilities increase risk in men and women

Vaginal sex between partners is one of the most common ways a person can acquire HIV. Both women and men can be put at risk when they have vaginal sex without using a condom.

There are a number of risk factors shared by both partners. There also are reasons for why men may be at risk, and other reasons for why women may be far more likely to become infected with HIV.

Illustration by Julie Bang for Verywell Health

This article discusses why vaginal sex presents an HIV risk for both men and women. It explains why anatomical differences, cultural norms, and even how well HIV treatment works can affect that risk.

Chance Of Getting Hiv From One Encounter

The HIV/AIDS Epidemic could be getting worse among women

It would be great to know how many times it takes to get HIV, but unfortunately, there is no guarantee that even with a risk of less than 1%, that someone will not get HIV from one encounter. So, even though there is a relatively small chance of getting HIV from a one-night stand or engaging in sexual activity with an infected partner once, the overall chance of getting infected increases with repeated exposure. Additionally, suppose the HIV-negative partner has an STI. In that case, the risk of getting HIV from an infected partner is higher, partially due to the possibility of having an open sore or ulcer.

As you can see, the most significant risk of exposure is non-sexual through a blood transfusion. So, while sexual activity is a major source of transmission, with proper preventative measures, the risk can be lowered. However, as with anything, understanding the risk is critical in making the choice that is right for you, and the only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested.

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What Should I Do If I Think Im At Risk For Hiv

If you think youâre at risk for getting HIV, or that you might already have HIV, get tested and learn about the effective HIV prevention and treatment options available today.

Testing is the only way to know for sure if you have HIV. Find out whether testing is recommended for you.

Many HIV tests are now quick, free, and painless. Ask your health care provider for an HIV test or use the HIV Services Locator to find a testing site near you. You can also buy an FDA-approved home testing kit at a pharmacy or online.

Knowing your HIV status gives you powerful information to help you take steps to keep you and your partner healthy:

  • If you test positive, you can start HIV treatment to stay healthy and prevent transmitting HIV to others.
  • If you test negative, you can use HIV prevention tools to reduce your risk of getting HIV in the future.

Factors That Can Increase Hiv Transmission

Research on heterosexual transmission has shed some light on the factors that can increase transmission:

Years ago, studies from Africa demonstrated that the amount of virus in a persons blood is a major determinant of whether a persons partner gets infected, whether they are male or female. In general, women need more virus in the blood to infect a man than a man needs to infect a woman. However, if we reduce the amount of virus in the blood to undetectable levels , almost no transmission occurs!

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Uncircumcised men are at increased risk of being infected by women. This has resulted in massive campaigns in many African countries to get men circumcised in communities where it is not commonly practiced.

Whats one factor that can help decrease HIV transmission? Sharing knowledge and helping to dispel these dangerous myths. Tell your coworkers the facts it may help save lives!

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How Hiv Is Transmitted

HIV is not passed on easily from one person to another. The virus does not spread through the air like cold and flu viruses.

HIV lives in the blood and in some body fluids. To get HIV, 1 of these fluids from someone with HIV has to get into your blood.

The body fluids that contain enough HIV to infect someone are:

  • vaginal fluids, including menstrual blood
  • contact with animals or insects like mosquitoes

Heterosexual Risk Of Hiv

Who is most at risk for HIV?

The authors’ three objectives were to provide summary estimates of HIV-1 transmission probabilities per heterosexual contact do in-depth single variable and multivariable analysis to explore the reasons for different study results and estimate the role of risk factors such as viral load and STIs on the likelihood of transmission.

The authors point out that putting a number on the actual likelihood of HIV transmission in a single sexual act is difficult to measure. The actual transmission to a partner, the number of unprotected sex acts, the length of the partner’s exposure to HIV, and other potential co-factors among the people who participate in a study about their sex acts are rarely completely known and there are unreported factors, such as some participants actually having other STIs, which could affect the accuracy of studies. Of course, this is likely true of most, if not all, studies that attempt to base conclusions on what people report about their sex lives.

The authors found that, overall, female-to-male and male-to-female transmission estimates in high-income countries show a low risk of infection even when the person with HIV is not on antiretroviral treatments.


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Other Types Of Transmission

In the past, HIV was spread by transfusion with blood products, such as whole blood or the “factor” used by hemophiliacs. Many people acquired HIV this way. The blood supply is now much more strictly tested and controlled in most countries. The odds of acquiring HIV from receiving blood or blood factor in countries like the US, the UK, and Canada are extremely low. For example, statistics from the US show that a person is more likely to be killed by a lightning strike than they are to acquire HIV from a blood transfusion. However, not every country screens all blood donations for HIV.

Some people, mostly health care workers, acquire HIV by accidentally sticking themselves with a needle with infected blood, or through other medical accidents. This is a very small percentage of overall seroconversions. According to the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention , only three in every 1,000 exposures to HIV-infected blood at work, if left untreated, will result in the worker acquiring HIV. When exposed to fluid or bodily products that may carry HIV while on the job, health care workers should be offered occupational post-exposure prophylaxis immediately.

If you are getting breast milk from a milk bank, it is important to ask if the bank tests the milk for HIV. Also, if your baby is getting breast milk from a wet nurse, it is important to make sure that she tests negative for HIV before giving her milk to your baby.

The Gw Hatchet: University Administers First Doses Of Mrna Hiv Vaccine Through Moderna Partnership

GW was one of the first institutions in the country to administer doses of the first mRNA HIV vaccines to human test subjects late last month. The School of Medicine and Health Sciences and its Vaccine Research Unit collaborated with Moderna to test the safety of the vaccine and the immune responses of two participants in the phase 1 clinical trial.

Friday, February 04, 2022

The COVID pandemic did not end the HIV-AIDS epidemic it may have obscured it for a while, raising hurdles to getting tested for HIV.

Wednesday, January 26, 2022

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Cervical Cancer And Hiv

Women with HIV have a higher risk of cervical cancer. It is important that they be screened regularly for this disease.

Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower, narrow part of the uterus . It is almost always caused by human papillomavirus infection.

The types of HPV that cause cervical cancer are more common in women with HIV. For this reason, women with HIV need to get regular Pap tests to help find changing cervical cells before they turn into cancer. Talk to your health care provider about the Pap test schedule that is right for you. In addition, the HPV vaccine is recommended for women with HIV infection through age 26.

Cervical cancer is an AIDS-defining cancer. That means that a diagnosis of cervical cancer marks the point at which a personâs HIV infection has progressed to AIDS.

Female To Male Hiv Transmission

Humans and Viruses: HIV Risk High Among Young African Women

It is believed that female to male HIV transmission rates are lower than the other way round. Let us delve deeper into this subject of HIV transmission probability through the following HealthHearty article.

It is believed that female to male HIV transmission rates are lower than the other way round. Let us delve deeper into this subject of HIV transmission probability through the following HealthHearty article.

HIV kills millions of people all over the world, and infects several others. It remains the most dreaded disease of the 21st century. The fact that HIV/AIDS has no permanent cure makes it even more threatening. Attempts are being made to control the rapid spread of this disease. There are several government and private agencies, which publish information on HIV transmission statistics from time to time. These statistics are often indicative of the extent to which HIV has spread in our society, and what are the most affected groups.

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