Monday, January 30, 2023

Describe The Relationship Between An Hiv Infection And Aids

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What Is The Difference Between Hiv Vs Aids

How HIV infects us: CD4 (T-helper) lymphocyte infection | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
  • The difference between HIV and AIDS is in the strict definition of both words. For example, HIV is defined as a virus that can be transmitted from person to person and damages the human immune system.
  • AIDS is defined as a syndrome or condition that results when HIV damages the human immune system so severely that the person becomes very susceptible to additional problems, including infections like pneumonia or tuberculosis and/or the development of cancers like Kaposi’s sarcoma.
  • HIV and AIDS are similar only because both of them involve the human immunodeficiency virus. Confusion exists between these two words because both the public and medical literature have tended to use HIV and AIDS interchangeably. Strictly speaking, the use of them interchangeably is incorrect. Consequently, for clarity, HIV should only refer to human immunodeficiency viruses and AIDS should only refer to the relatively end-stage syndromes that develop after HIV has extensively damaged a person’s immune system. For example, a person can have HIV, or better termed, an infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus but not have AIDS. A person can have AIDS caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, but AIDS is a syndrome , and AIDS is not the human immunodeficiency virus .

Std Statistics In The Us

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , nearly 20 million new STD infections occur every year, accounting for almost $16 billion in healthcare costs.

Three diseases make up the bulk of the infections:

  • Chlamydia: 1,800,000 infections at a rate of 552.8 per 100,000
  • Gonorrhea: 616,392 infections at a rate of approximately 200 per 100,000
  • Syphilis : 129,813 infections at a rate of 30 per 100,000

Anyone who is sexually active could be at risk of becoming infected with an STD.

The rate of STD infections is particularly high among gay and bisexual men, who also account for the highest rate of HIV infections in the U.S. Gay and bisexual men account for almost all primary and secondary syphilis cases.

To this end, If you are a sexually active gay or bisexual man, you should be tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV at least once a year. More frequent STD testing, between every three to six months, is recommended for gay or bisexual men at high risk, especially those who have multiple sex partners, use recreational drugs, or practice condomless sex.

Different Types Of Hiv Tests

The biggest difference between HIV and AIDS is that HIV is a virus that infects the body and compromises its ability to fight off other diseases, while AIDS is the final stage of an HIV infection in which the persons immune system is so compromised by HIV that opportunistic infections and diseases occur.

A person must be tested for the virus to determine whether they have HIV. The following are the three types of HIV tests:

  • Nucleic acid tests involve drawing blood from the persons vein and detecting HIV in the blood. NAT is the fastest and most expensive HIV test.
  • Antigen/antibody tests detect the presence of HIV antibodies and antigens in the blood. The blood is drawn from a vein or extracted via a finger prick.
  • HIV antibody tests detect HIV antibodies in the persons blood or oral fluid. Tests involving drawing blood from a vein can detect antibodies sooner after the initial infection than either a finger prick or oral fluid.

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Hiv And Aids Treatment

More than 25 antiretroviral therapy drugs are approved to treat the virus. Your doctor will prescribe a mix of these medications.

The drugs will help stop HIV from making copies of itself. That will keep you healthy and lower your risk of spreading it.

Thereâs no cure for HIV or AIDS. ARTâs goal is to lower your viral load and keep your immune system healthy. The idea is to lower the viral load to âundetectableâ and keep it that way, by taking your medicine every day as prescribed.

Hiv Can Be Transmitted From Person To Person

Players in the Pathogenesis of the Retroviral Infections

Because HIV is a virus, it can be transmitted between people just like many other viruses. AIDS, on the other hand, is a condition a person acquires only after theyve contracted HIV.

The virus is transmitted from one person to another through the exchange of bodily fluids. Most commonly, HIV is transmitted through sex without condoms or shared needles. Less so, a mother can transmit the virus to their child during pregnancy.

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Aids: Stage 3 Of Hiv Infection

AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection. It is diagnosed based on a CD4 cell count or the development of one or more opportunistic infections. Stage 1 is the acute stage of HIV and stage 2 is the clinical latency stage. More information on these two stages is included later in the article.

The CD4 cell count in healthy individuals ranges from 500 to 1,600 cells per cubic millimeter of blood . According to AIDS.gov, those with HIV are considered to have developed AIDS when their CD4 cell count drops to under 200 cells/mm3.

Without medical treatment, AIDS typically develops between 2 and 15 years after contracting the HIV virus.

The rate at which the virus progresses depends on many factors, including the patients age, general health, genetics, the presence of other infections, and standard of health care.

Some people with the HIV virus will never develop AIDS. Those who use medication are unlikely ever to have it.

Ses Affects Our Society

SES affects overall human functioning, including our physical and mental health. Low SES and its correlates, such as lower educational achievement, poverty and poor health, ultimately affect our society. Inequities in health distribution, resource distribution, and quality of life are increasing in the United States and globally. Society benefits from an increased focus on the foundations of socioeconomic inequities and efforts to reduce the deep gaps in socioeconomic status in the United States and abroad.

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Influence Of Hiv Service Use On Relationships

The same complexity was noted when exploring the influence of HIV service use on relationships, with disclosure emerging as a salient theme.

Disclosure in couple relationships

In some instances, disclosure of ones HIV status and subsequent engagement in care encouraged closeness. Such disclosure was often driven by a need for support. Support given by partners included physical help when weak, collecting medication, reminders to take ART and accompanying partners to the clinic. This reportedly strengthened relationships for many participants. Some PLHIV actively sought out new partners of the same positive HIV status as a strategy to maintain a relationship whilst mutually and openly engaging in HIV care and treatment.

I desired to marry her after I found out about my status. I thought of looking for someone to stay with because sometimes I may get sick suddenly, so I needed someone to be closer to.

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission and couple-testing policies were mentioned as drivers for improved couple communication, with some PLHIV reporting that they tried to test with their partner.

After we got marriedmy wifebecame pregnant and was diagnosed with HIV at antenatal care. When she came back during that time she disclosed this to me, so when they came and asked for consent, I freely wanted to know my status. This was what motivated me, but there was no sign of sickness.

I took the test and started taking the drugsbut until nowmy husband doesnt know.

Ses Impacts The Lives Of People With Hiv/aids

What it means to have HIV

Both domestically and internationally, HIV is a disease that is embedded in social and economic inequity , as it affects those of lower socioeconomic status and impoverished neighborhoods at a disproportionately high rate. Research on SES and HIV/AIDS suggests that a persons socioeconomic standing may affect his or her likelihood of contracting HIV and developing AIDS. Furthermore, SES is a key factor in determining the quality of life for individuals after they are affected by the virus.

SES Affects HIV Infection

A lack of socioeconomic resources is linked to the practice of riskier health behaviors, which can lead to the contraction of HIV. These behaviors include substance use, which reduces the likelihood of using condoms .

HIV Status Affects SES

HIV status often has a negative impact on socioeconomic status by constraining an individuals ability to work and earn income.

SES Affects HIV Treatment
Get Involved
  • Consider SES in your education, practice and research efforts.
  • Stay up to date on legislation and policies that explore and work to eliminate socioeconomic disparities . Visit the Office on Government Relations for more details.

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About Hiv/aids And Human Rights

Human rights are intimately linked with the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS. A lack of respect for human rights fuels the spread and exacerbates the impact of the disease, while at the same time HIV undermines progress in the realisation of human rights. This link is apparent in the disproportionate incidence and spread of the disease among certain groups which, depending on the nature of the epidemic and the prevailing social, legal and economic conditions, include women and children, and particularly those living in poverty. It is also apparent in the fact that the overwhelming burden of the epidemic today is borne by developing countries, where the disease threatens to reverse vital achievements in human development. AIDS and poverty are now mutually reinforcing negative forces in many developing countries.

Ohchrs Work On Hiv/aids

Since 1999, we have endeavoured to contribute to an effective and sustainable response to the epidemic by:

  • raising awareness and understanding of the human rights dimensions of HIV/AIDS
  • strengthening capacities to address HIV/AIDS-related human rights issues at national and international levels
  • working in close collaboration with UNAIDS towards the promotion and protection of human rights in the context of HIV/AIDS .
  • providing the UN Human Rights Council with support on the issue of HIV/AIDS, including preparation of reports of the Secretary-General to the Council on measures taken by member States towards implementation of provisions contained in HIV/AIDS-related resolutions
  • preparing the Secretary-General’s reports on the protection of human rights in the context of HIV and AIDS

OHCHR has made progress towards these objectives, in particular by supporting the work of the UN Human Rights Council and its special rapporteurs, the UN treaty bodies, the universal periodic review, national human rights institutions, as well as mainstreaming issues within the broader UN system. We have also contributed to the integration of a human rights perspective into the work of other UN agencies and programmes.

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How Do I Know If I Have Hiv

The only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested. Testing is relatively simple. You can ask your health care provider for an HIV test. Many medical clinics, substance abuse programs, community health centers, and hospitals offer them too.

To find an HIV testing location near you, use the HIV Services Locator.

HIV self-testing is also an option. Self-testing allows people to take an HIV test and find out their result in their own home or other private location. You can buy a self-test kit at a pharmacy or online. Some health departments or community-based organizations also provide self-test kits for a reduced cost or for free.

Aids Diagnosis Is More Complicated

JCI

AIDS is late stage HIV infection. Healthcare providers look for a few factors to determine if HIV latency has progressed to stage 3 HIV.

Because HIV destroys immune cells called CD4 cells, one way healthcare providers diagnose AIDS is to do a count of those cells. A person without HIV can have anywhere from 500 to 1,200 CD4 cells. When the cells have dropped to 200, a person with HIV is considered to have stage 3 HIV.

Another factor signaling that stage 3 HIV has developed is the presence of opportunistic infections. Opportunistic infections are diseases caused by viruses, fungi, or bacteria that would not make a person with an undamaged immune system sick.

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How Is Hiv Diagnosed

HIV is diagnosed with either a test of your blood or your spit . You can take a test at home, in a healthcare providers office or at a location that provides testing in your community.

If your test comes back negative, no further testing is required if:

  • You havent had a possible exposure in the previous three months before testing with any kind of test.
  • You havent had a possible exposure within the window period for a test done with a blood draw.

If you have had a possible exposure within three months of testing, you should consider retesting to confirm the negative result.

If your test comes back positive, the lab may do follow-up tests to confirm the result.

The Quest For Understanding Of Hiv

Since the discovery of HIV and its link to AIDS, great strides have been made in understanding its biology and in developing effective treatments. The difficulty in dealing with HIV on a global scale is largely due to the fact that HIV infection is far more common in resource-poor countries.

In the developed world, antiretroviral therapy has greatly improved prognosis and increased survival rates. Public education programs have raised awareness such that testing and prevention of infection are more common. Both of these approaches are difficult in countries with undereducated or underfunded populations.

A thorough discussion of the history of AIDS and the biologic link between HIV and AIDS can be found in an article entitled ” The relationship between the human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ” at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. The document was originally written in September 1995, before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy , which has significantly improved AIDS-free survival in persons infected with HIV. This version was updated March 2010.

Patient confidentiality

HIV-related health information is typically considered separate from other health information and may require separate consent to share or divulge.

Health care workers who are infected with HIV may be required to divulge their status to their employer or patients and may be restricted in the types of procedures they can perform.

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Immunologic Control Of Hiv

The primary mechanism for immunologic control of HIV appears to be CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. T-cell responses are correlated with the steady-state viral load and hence, the rate of progression. Cellular immunity is apparently responsible for some multiply-exposed, but uninfected individuals.

Although antibodies against HIV can be detected, it is clear that they are not sufficiently neutralizing to assist with immunologic control of the infection.

The role of NK cells may be important in the initial control of HIV. Escape mutations have been detected, implying that immunologic pressure on HIV exists from NK cells.

Hiv Is An Infection That Can Lead To Aids

What is #HIV? The Signs and #Symptoms of HIV and How HIV is Transmitted

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Its a virus that breaks down certain cells in your immune system . When HIV damages your immune system, its easier to get really sick and even die from infections that your body could normally fight off.

About 1.1 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV, and more than 38,000 new infections happen every year. Most people with HIV dont have any symptoms for many years and feel totally fine, so they might not even know they have it.

Once you have HIV, the virus stays in your body for life. Theres no cure for HIV, but medicines can help you stay healthy. HIV medicine lowers or even stops your chances of spreading the virus to other people. Studies show that using HIV treatment as directed can lower the amount of HIV in your blood so much that it might not even show up on a test when this happens, you cant transmit HIV through sex.Treatment is really important . Without treatment, HIV can lead to AIDS. But with medicine, people with HIV can live long, healthy lives and stop the spread of HIV to others.

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Central Nervous System Disease Associated With Hiv

HIV causes significant inflammation in the body. This inflammation can cause neurological complications by damaging the spinal cord and brain, which make up the central nervous system.

Antiretroviral therapy , a combination of HIV medications taken daily, helps stop HIV from replicating and spreading in the body. Despite effective ART, people living with HIV are still at risk for central nervous system diseases associated with HIV. These diseases can be neurological or neurocognitive .

Severe neurological impairments such as dementia, brain atrophy, and encephalitis are less common in people who use ART, compared to people living with HIV who are not on ART. However, there are still less severe forms of central nervous system diseases associated with HIV.

Researchers are working to better understand how HIV affects the central nervous system this information will be helpful to develop new treatments to improve the lives of people living with HIV. Understanding which types of cells in the central nervous system are targeted by the HIV infection and how those cells are damaged may help shape efforts to prevent, treat, and cure HIV. Research efforts also focus on understanding why HIV is harder to eliminate in some tissues in the body and what strategies might be more effective on those cells.

The Addiction Always Comes First

An addicted person may want to put their loved ones and goals first, but drugs and alcohol will always overrule those desires. They may realize theyre increasing the risk of HIV, but they avoid testing because theyre afraid their addiction will be discovered. Even after an HIV diagnosis, buying drugs may take precedence over paying for medications.

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