Immunisation Protects Against Infectious Disease
The purpose of immunisation is to prevent people from getting sick. It helps to protect people against the complications of becoming ill, including developing chronic diseases, cancer, and death.68
Vaccines work by stimulating the bodys defence mechanisms to provide protection against infection.
Vaccines can sometimes produce a stronger, longer-lasting protective response compared to immunity from a natural infection.
Vaccines create immunity without causing disease. Disease can lead to serious complications, which is why vaccination is a safer way to develop immunity.
Vaccines work by stimulating the bodys defence mechanisms to provide protection against infection and illness. These defence mechanisms are collectively referred to as the immune system. Vaccines mimic and sometimes improve the protective response normally mounted by the immune system after infection. The great advantage of immunisation over natural infections is that immunisation has a much lower risk of harmful outcomes.24,915
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What Is Gardasil 9
Gardasil 9 is a vaccine thats used to prevent certain diseases caused by human papillomavirus .
HPV is a virus that can cause very serious conditions such as cervical, vulvar, vaginal, , and certain head and neck cancers. It can also cause precancerous spots to form in those areas. In addition to cancer and precancerous spots, HPV can also cause genital warts.
Gardasil 9 is approved for use in children and adults ages 9 through 45 years old. The vaccine is usually injected into the muscle in your upper arm. It can be given as two or three shots over the course of 6 to 12 months.
Who Should Not Get Hpv Vaccine
Tell your doctor about any severe allergies. Some people should not get some HPV vaccines if:
- They have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any ingredient of an HPV vaccine, or to a previous dose of HPV vaccine.
- They have an allergy to yeast .
- They are pregnant.
HPV vaccines are safe for children who are mildly ill, like those with a low-grade fever of less than 101 degrees, a cold, runny nose, or cough. People with a moderate or severe illness should wait until they are better.
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Who Should Get The Vaccine And When Should They Get It
All kids who are 11 or 12 years old should get the HPV vaccine, though it may be given as young as 9 years. The vaccine is more effective and the immune system responds more strongly when given at this age.
Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females up to age 26 for all males up to age 21 and for males age 22-26 who meet certain health conditions or who request it. Talk to your healthcare provider about what doses you may need.
Women and girls who are breastfeeding may get the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women or girls.
Two doses of the vaccine are needed for those who start the series between ages 9 and 14 and have a healthy immune system. Those who start at age 15 through 26 need three doses. Anyone with a compromised immune system should get three doses, even if they are 9 through 14.
HPV vaccine is not required to attend school in Washington, but you can ask for it at the same time as the required school vaccines are being given.
A New Study Suggests That One Dose Of The Hpv Vaccine Instead Of The Recommended Two Or More Might Offer Enough Protection What Do You Make Of That
Dr. Kriplani: I think this is very promising early data. It sets the stage for additional studies. We would need long-term follow-up data before recommending a single-dose regimen.
Dr. Aragones: The guidelines are very clear that two or three doses of the HPV vaccine are needed for full protection. There is some initial evidence that one dose may be enough, but were not there yet. Its important to note that the reason for going down to one dose is not for safety or effectiveness. Were looking to see if it offers enough protection if it does, it would be easier to immunize a lot of people worldwide.
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Have The Covid Vaccines Effectively Protected Older Adults In The Real World
Vaccinated older adults, particularly those who are also boosted, enjoy significant protection compared to older adults who are unvaccinated.
Data looked at rates of COVID-related hospitalizations between early November and late December 2021, when both Delta and Omicron were circulating widely in the US. The data showed that unvaccinated Americans ages 50 to 64 years were 44 times more likely to be hospitalized than those who were vaccinated and boosted. Unvaccinated Americans ages 65 and older were 49 times more likely to hospitalized than their vaccinated and boosted counterparts.
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The Vaccine Is Still Helpful Even If You Have Already Tested Positive For Hpv Or Have Been Sexually Active For A While
Most HPV transmission happens when people first become sexually active. But women who have already tested positive for HPV usually arent positive for all nine types that we vaccinate for. So in some cases, well recommend those patients get the vaccine if they havent already. And if youre older midlife age, and new on the dating scene and sexually active you should ask your doctor about the vaccine too.
Copyright 2022 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. All rights reserved. Read copyright and permissions information.This information is designed as an educational aid for the public. It offers current information and opinions related to women’s health. It is not intended as a statement of the standard of care. It does not explain all of the proper treatments or methods of care. It is not a substitute for the advice of a physician. Read ACOGs complete disclaimer.
Dr. Pamela Deak
Dr. Deak is an obstetriciangynecologist. She serves as division chief of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at UC San Diego Health System and clinical professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine. She is a fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
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What Does The 9 Stand For In Gardasil 9
The 9 in Gardasil 9 stands for the nine types of HPV that the vaccine protects against. There are more than 100 types of HPV. However, the nine types that Gardasil 9 protects against are the ones that cause the majority of HPV-related cancers in both males and females.* Gardasil 9 protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.
* Sex and gender exist on spectrums. Use of the terms male and female in this article refers to sex assigned at birth.
When Will The Government Approve A Fourth Covid
Numerous studies indicate the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines decreases over time, and US health officials continue to move toward recommending a second booster shot for the general population.
The potential future requirement for an additional boost a fourth shot for mRNA, or a third shot for Johnson & Johnson is being very carefully monitored in real time, White House Chief Medical Adviser Dr. Anthony Fauci said in a February press briefing.
The FDA is potentially preparing to authorize a fourth vaccine dose in fall 2022, according to The Wall Street Journal.
Health officials in Israel, Germany, the UK, Sweden and other countries already recommend a fourth booster for individuals with certain conditions or of a certain age.
Bourla added that any strategy on additional shots needs to be carefully coordinated with the FDA and the CDC so that we are all providing to the American people and to the world a cohesive picture rather than confusion.
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Does A Coronavirus Infection Provide Protective Immunity
An infection causes the immune system to respond to and recognize the coronavirus. After getting the virus, most people have detectable antibodies, health experts say. Though other arms of the immune system might become involved, studies so far suggest that the key to fighting the virus correlates with the production of antibodies.
Though protection is decent for those who have previously had COVID-19, health experts say it is not as strong as when people get vaccinated.
So thats why there is that recommendation that despite having had COVID before, for full protection the vaccination is the best way to go, said Dr. Lisa Maragakis, senior director for infection prevention at Johns Hopkins.
A prior infection offers protection in the range of 80%, compared to about 95% for the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, said Dr. John Wherry, director of the Institute for Immunology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. That means about 15 to 20 out of every 100 people who have previously had COVID-19 could get reinfected, while 5 out of every 100 people who got an mRNA vaccine might get infected.
Lab studies suggest that protection following a case of COVID-19 begins to wane slightly after about three months, but can last for up to 10 months, although theres a range to that, Wherry said.
Hpv Tests Check For High
These tests are usually used to identify women who are at high-risk of having precancerous changes and developing cervical cancer. Research shows that HPV testing is more accurate than the Pap test in finding precancerous changes in the cervix. Researchers are still trying to find the best way to use the HPV test as a part of cervical cancer screening. are an effective way to find cervical cancer.
HPV tests are available in some areas of Canada. In provinces that use HPV tests as part of their cervical cancer screening programs, they are generally used as a follow-up to abnormal Pap tests results.
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Protect Yourself Against Hpv
More than half of all sexually active people get a genital infection with the human papillomavirus at some point in their lives, but most never know it. As a result, they might be spreading the virus to others without realizing it. Fortunately, vaccines are available to protect against the most harmful forms of HPV. These vaccines work best if given well before a person becomes sexually active.
Many different types of HPV can cause infections in the throat or genital area in both men and women. In most cases, HPV infections go away on their own without being noticed. Other times, they can cause health problems, including genital warts and certain cancers. A variety of cancers are caused by HPV infection, says Dr. Douglas Lowy, a cancer researcher at NIH. The most prominent is cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer is the fourth-deadliest cancer among women worldwide. Nearly all cases are caused by HPV.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 2 vaccines that protect against harmful forms of HPV. These vaccines were developed in part based on initial discoveries made by Lowy and his NIH colleague Dr. John Schiller.
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How Well The Second Dose Works
In the early clinical trials, researchers studied how much of the mRNA to include in each dose of the Pfizer vaccine and how many doses people should have. They measured the level of antibodies in the blood that were produced after each dose.
After the first dose
After the first dose, the antibody levels were much lower compared to those seen after natural infection with COVID-19.
After the second dose
After the second dose, the antibody levels were higher than those seen after the first dose, and higher than those seen after natural infection.
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How Long Does Protection Last
HPV vaccine offers long-lasting protection against HPV infection and HPV associated disease. Protection produced by HPV vaccine lasts at least 8-10 years, according to data from clinical trials and ongoing research. There is no evidence to suggest that HPV vaccine loses the ability to provide protection over time. Research will continue to determine how long the vaccine’s protection lasts.
Like all vaccines, HPV vaccine is monitored continually to make sure it remains safe and effective. If protection doesn’t last as long as it should, then the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices would review the data and determine if a booster shot should be recommended.
Can A Vaccine Help Prevent Hpv
Yes. Vaccines are available to help prevent infection by certain types of HPV and some of the cancers linked to those types. As of 2020, Gardasil 9 is the only HPV vaccine available in the United States. Other HPV vaccines are available outside the U.S.
Gardasil 9 helps prevent infection by 4 types of HPV , plus 5 other high risk types: 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Together these types cause about 90% of cervical cancers.
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Gardasil 9 And Breastfeeding
Not enough studies have been done to determine if Gardasil 9 is safe to receive while breastfeeding. Its not known if Gardasil 9 can pass into breast milk. There is no animal data to determine if Gardasil 9 can pass into breast milk or harm a breastfeeding child.
If you are breastfeeding, talk with your doctor or pharmacist about the best time to get your Gardasil 9 vaccine.
Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about Gardasil 9.
Will My Insurance Cover The Cost Of The Hpv Vaccine
Most insurance plans cover routine vaccines, which means that if you’re in the recommended age group, your insurance should pay for the vaccine. Check with your insurance company just to be sure. If your family doesn’t have health insurance or you’re on Medicaid, you should be able to get the HPV vaccine for free through the Vaccines for Children program.
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How Many Doses Of Hpv Vaccine Are Needed
The HPV vaccine is given as a series of shots. ACIP specifies different dosing schedules, depending on the age when the vaccination series is started . Children who start the vaccine series before their 15th birthday need only two doses to be fully protected. People who start the series at age 15 or older and people who have certain conditions that weaken the immune system need three doses to be fully protected.
Researchers are currently investigating whether a single dose of HPV vaccine might be effective. See What research is being done on strategies to prevent HPV infection?
Vaccine Vs Natural Immunity
There are a lot of similarities but also sometimes some differences between vaccine immunity and natural immunity. For example, in response to an infection or vaccination with a live virus, IgM antibodies usually are made first, followed by IgG and some other types of antibodies.
And just like in a natural infection, protective immunity doesnt begin the moment you get vaccinated. It takes a couple of weeks or so for your immune system to form the antibodies and groups of B cells that it needs. Thats why you dont get full protective coverage from a vaccination right away.
For the most part, the antibodies that you form from getting vaccinated are the same kind of antibodies you would get from a natural infection. One difference is that certain types of vaccines only show the immune system part of the relevant virus. Because of that, the immune system doesnt form as many different types of antibodies as it would in the course of a natural infection.
However, this doesnt mean that the antibodies formed are less effective than those formed in a natural infection. Its just that someone who has been naturally infected might also have additional antibodies .
To make a vaccine, researchers carefully select a specific part of the virus shown in lab studies to trigger an antibody response that effectively neutralizes the virus.
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Questions About Who Should Get Hpv Vaccine
Who should get the HPV vaccine and how many doses?
The HPV vaccine is recommended for adolescents between 9 and 12 years of age, and all teenagers and adults between 13 and 26 years of age who did not get the vaccine when they were younger. Individuals between 27 and 45 years of age can also discuss vaccination with their healthcare provider and receive the vaccine if they decide it can protect them from HPV infection.
- Younger than 15 years old: Two doses separated by 6 months
- 15 years and older: Three doses of HPV vaccine with the second dose given one to two months after the first, and the third dose given six to 12 months after the first
If I have received the first dose of HPV vaccine, is it safe to be intimate? Am I protected from HPV?
People who have received one dose of the HPV vaccine may have some protection, but the additional dose or doses offer additional protection. Further, if you or your partner were already infected with a type of HPV, the vaccine will not prevent transmission of that HPV type.
I think I had the HPV vaccine about six years ago, but I am not certain. Should I get the shot? And if I do, but I was vaccinated before, will anything happen?
I had the HPV vaccine but have since given birth to a child. Do I need the HPV vaccine again?
No, people who have been vaccinated against HPV do not need to be revaccinated after giving birth.