What Are Utis And Kidney Infections
UTIs occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract the urethra, bladder and kidneys. Normally, your body flushes out harmful bacteria with urine. However, sometimes bacteria can still travel inside and infect the urinary tract. Infections can develop after having sex, using vaginal douches or spermicides, or when the bladder doesnt empty.
Women get UTIs more frequently than men because a womans urethra is shorter than a mans, which allows bacteria to reach the bladder more easily. However, men can still get UTIs. People with diabetes and those with weakened immune systems may also be at higher risk for UTIs.
Kidney infections are a type of UTI. Most kidney infections occur when bacteria that infect the lower urinary tract travel to one or both kidneys. Kidney infections can be serious, and its important to treat them soon to avoid getting very sick.
UTIs cause pain or burning during urination. You may also have:
- Cloudy, bloody or foul-smelling urine
- Difficulty urinating
A kidney infection can also cause the symptoms listed above, as well as:
- Pain in the back, side or groin
Your doctor is ultimately the best person to decide if you have a UTI or kidney infection, Dr. Watson says. At your exam, discuss any ongoing symptoms, and your doctor will arrange for testing.
Doctors typically will order a urine test, which involves taking a small sample of urine and sending it to a laboratory to be analyzed for bacteria and white blood cells.
What Is The Treatment For Kidney Infection
The most important component of treating kidney infection is the timely initiation of antibiotics under the directions of a health care professional. If a kidney infection is diagnosed, then an empiric antibiotic is usually prescribed. A urine and blood sample will be taken and sent to a laboratory for analysis of any bacterial growth .
When a specific type of bacteria is isolated, antibiotics may then be changed to those that are more active against that particular bacterial type. If the bacteria shows resistance to the antibiotic that was initially prescribed, then the antibiotic is changed promptly to one that the organism is susceptible to in order to cure the kidney infection.
Home treatment with oral antibiotics and adequate water and fluid intake is usually sufficient for curing uncomplicated kidney infections and urinary tract infections. Nondrug home treatment with fluid intake, cranberry products, or acupuncture without antibiotics is not advisable for kidney infections.
However, if symptoms are severe or the infection is difficult to control with the routine oral medications for kidney infection, then hospitalization may be required to receive intravenous antibiotics, intravenous hydration, and aggressive management of symptoms. In cases of complicated kidney, infection hospitalization may also be necessary.
Can I Go To Work With A Kidney Infection
Most kidney infections are treated on an outpatient basis with oral antibiotics. Symptom relief typically occurs after a few days of treatment, so it may be possible to go to work at that point. Many patients, however, require a week or two before they feel well enough to work. As always, never go to work with a fever.
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Types Of Urinary Tract Conditions
A urinary tract infection refers to an infection in any area of the urinary tract. Conditions that can occur in the urinary tract or with the potential to lead to complicated infections include:
- Urethritis: An inflammation of the urethra, usually caused by an infection for example, a sexually transmitted disease such as chlamydia
- Cystitis: An infection in the bladder that has often moved up from the urethra, also one of the most common UTIs
- Nephritis: Any type of kidney inflammation
- Pyelonephritis: An infection in one or both kidneys
Is Screening Recommended For Uti Or Kidney Infection
In general, screening is not recommended for urinary tract infections and kidney infections in men and nonpregnant women.
While pregnant, screening may be recommended for women because bacteria in the urine without symptoms of infection are associated with a higher rate of progression to an overt urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis. These infections can potentially compromise fetal growth and health.
Screening for bacteria in the urine without any symptoms is also recommended for any individual prior to undergoing instrumentation of the urinary tract or in men undergoing prostate procedures. The presence of bacteria in the urine with or without infection can possibly lead to an increased chance of developing a urinary tract infection. Treating these bacteria can substantially reduce the infectious complications of such procedures.
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Can Kidney Infection Be Prevented
Most kidney infections are caused by germs travelling up from a bladder infection. So the same things that can help to reduce your chances of bladder infection should reduce your chances of kidney infection. Traditionally, people who got recurring urine infections were advised about measures such as drinking plenty of fluid and taking cranberry juice, and on the way that they wiped themselves after going to the toilet. However, there is little evidence for any of these measures and they are now not usually advised. Anything which increases your risk of urine infections which can be treated, should be treated. For example, any constipation should be treated promptly, as constipation can increase your chances of a bladder or kidney infection. See the separate leaflet called Constipation for more details. Doctors will try to treat anything else which might be contributing, such as kidney stones or an abnormality in the structure of the urinary system.
Pregnant women are regularly tested for urine infections and for germs in their urine. Even if they don’t have symptoms, if urine tests positive for germs, pregnant women are usually treated with antibiotics to prevent any complications.
In some cases people who have recurring urine infections are treated with a low dose of antibiotic continually. This may help to prevent recurrences and to prevent spread to the kidney.
Signs And Symptoms Of A Kidney Infection
Signs and symptoms of a kidney infection include those of a lower urinary tract infection including painful and frequent urination as well as:
- Fever and chills
- Pain in the lower back or sides
- Nausea and vomiting
- Cloudy or smelly urine
- Dark or bloody urine
In people ages 65 and older, the above signs and symptoms of kidney infection may not occur. Instead, these individuals may experience confusion, hallucinations, or difficulty speaking.
In newborns and very young children, the only sign of a kidney infection may be a high fever.
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What Is Acute Kidney Injury
Acute kidney injury is sudden kidney damage within a few hours or days. Acute kidney injury is also known as acute kidney or renal failure. It may occur due to damage to the kidney tissue caused by decreased kidney blood flow from any cause , exposure to substances and toxins harmful to the kidney, an inflammatory process in the kidney, or an obstruction of the urinary tract that impedes the flow of urine. AKI is a severe condition and requires immediate medical treatment. In many cases, it will be short-term, but it may lead to long-term chronic kidney disease in some people. Acute kidney injury is more commonly found in patients in hospitals, intensive care units, or among seniors.
How Do Doctors Treat A Kidney Infection
Doctors treat most kidney infections with antibiotics . Doctors will often first prescribe an antibiotic that fights the most common types of kidney infection because it is very important to treat a kidney infection right away. Then, they may change the type of antibiotic after they get the results of your blood or urine tests.
Doctors will prescribe an antibiotic medicine based on:
- What type of bacteria is causing the infection
- How severe the infection is
- If you are you are pregnant
- If you are older than 65
- If you had problems from certain antibiotics in the past, such as allergic reactions
If you have a very serious infection, you may need to stay in the hospital to get antibiotics through an IV . You may also get medicine for pain.
If your kidney infection was caused by a problem with the shape of your urinary tract, you may need to have surgery to correct the problem and prevent future kidney infections.
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Diagnosis Of Kidney Infection
Imaging tests Imaging Tests of the Urinary Tract There are a variety of tests that can be used in the evaluation of a suspected kidney or urinary tract disorder. X-rays are usually not helpful in evaluating… read more are done in people who have intense back pain typical of renal colic, in those who do not respond to antibiotic treatment within 72 hours, in those whose symptoms return shortly after antibiotic treatment is finished, in those with long-standing or recurring pyelonephritis, in those whose blood test results indicate kidney damage, and in men . Ultrasonography or helical computed tomography studies done in these situations may reveal kidney stones, Stones in the Urinary Tract Stones are hard masses that form in the urinary tract and may cause pain, bleeding, or an infection or block of the flow of urine. Tiny stones may cause no symptoms, but larger stones… read more structural abnormalities, or other causes of urinary obstruction.
Can Kidney Infections Be Prevented
Kidney infections can be prevented by keeping bacteria out of the urinary tract and bladder. Infections in the kidney often start as a lower tract infection in the bladder. By preventing these infections, you may be able to prevent kidney infections.
There are several ways to avoid infection and keep your kidneys healthy. These tips can include:
- Hydration: It is important to drink adequate fluid every day but there is no specific recommendation that applies to every patient.. The amount can change if you have certain medical conditions or live in a particularly hot climate. Talk to your healthcare provider about the recommended amount of water you need each day.
- Urinate completely: When you need to urinate, empty your bladder completely. Holding in your urine can be harmful and can promote the growth of bacteria. Urinating every several hours can help to flush any bacteria out of your body, protecting it from an infection.
- Urinate after having sex: Urinating after sex helps to remove any bacteria that may have gotten into the body. Men and women should both do this to prevent infections.
- Practice good hygiene: Keeping yourself clean can help protect your body from infections. After a bowel movement, wipe from front to back to push bacteria away from the urethra . This is especially important for women.
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Causes Of Kidney Infection
A kidney infection usually happens when bacteria, often a type called E. coli, get into the tube that carries urine out of your body .
The bacteria travel up to your bladder, causing cystitis, and then up into your kidneys.
E. coli bacteria normally live in your bowel, where they cause no harm.
They can be transferred from your bottom to your genitals during sex or if you’re not careful when wiping your bottom after going to the loo.
A kidney infection can sometimes develop without a bladder infection. For example, if you have a problem with your kidney, such as kidney stones, or if you have diabetes or a weakened immune system.
When To Seek Medical Advice
Contact your GP if you have a high temperature, persistent pain, or if you notice a change to your usual pattern of urination. Contact your GP immediately if you think your child may have a kidney infection.
If you have blood in your urine, you should always see your GP so the cause can be investigated.
Your GP can carry out some simple tests to help diagnose a kidney infection.
See diagnosing kidney infections for more information
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What Can I Do To Help Prevent My Child From Getting A Kidney Infection
If you suspect your child has a UTI, get them prompt medical treatment to help prevent the UTI from turning into a kidney infection. Here are some tips for preventing UTIs.
While preventative antibiotics have been found to reduce the number of recurrent UTIs, there isnt any evidence that their use decreases the risk of kidney infection or scarring. Uncircumcised boys that are less than one year old are ten times more likely to get UTIs than circumcised boys, but by age two the risk decreases and circumcision does not have an effect on infection rates.
Causes And Risk Factors Of A Kidney Infection
Kidney infections can be caused by bacteria or viruses that spread in your urinary tract, but bacterial infections are much more common.
In fact, about 90 percent of kidney infections are caused by a single type of bacteria, Eschericia coli, or E. coli, according to the Cleveland Clinic.
The infection is thought to occur from bacteria that travel from your gastrointestinal tract to your skin surface, through your urethra to your bladder, then through the tubes that connect your bladder and kidneys.
Normally, urine flushes any potentially harmful bacteria out of your ureters before they can cause an infection. But sometimes this doesnt happen due to the following conditions:
- Structural abnormalities in your ureters or kidneys
- Enlarged prostate
- Urine backflow from your bladder to your kidneys
Its also possible for bacteria from your bloodstream to enter your kidneys and cause an infection. This happens most commonly with staphylococcus, or staph, bacteria.
Kidney infections that spread from your bloodstream tend to develop after surgery or as a consequence of another infection elsewhere in the body. For example, if an artificial joint or heart valve becomes infected, the kidneys can become secondarily infected.
Its very uncommon for kidney surgery to lead to a kidney infection.
A number of factors can increase your risk of developing a kidney infection:
This reduced urine flow can make it easier for bacteria in your bladder to migrate into your kidneys.
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Congenital And Hereditary Diseases
Polycystic disease is the most common: 8% of chronic renal failure is due to this disease, characterized by the development of numerous cysts in both kidneys. It is an inherited disease that affects both sexes. The risk of transmission differs according to the genetic form. It can evolve into adulthood towards chronic renal failure but in a very slow way. A number of polycystoses never reach the stage of chronic end-stage renal failure.
Alport Syndrome is a hereditary disease characterized by abnormalities in the biochemical composition of the basement membrane of the glomerulus leading to a defect in filtration. The association of auditory and even ocular and renal insufficiency, especially in boys, must be reminiscent of this disease.
What Causes A Kidney Infection
Most kidney infections develop from a bladder infection . Bacteria travel up the tube between the bladder and kidney to infect a kidney. These bacteria are usually those normally living in the bowel eg, E. coli. Most people with cystitis dont get a kidney infection.
Some kidney infections develop without a bladder infection. This is sometimes due to a problem in the kidney. For example, people are more prone to kidney infections if they have a kidney stone or an abnormality of the kidney.
Kidney infections are also more common in children, in older people and during pregnancy. They are uncommon in men.
List Of Kidney Diseases And Conditions
Synopsis:List of possible acute and chronic kidney diseases and other medical conditions that can affect human kidney function. Most kidney diseases attack the nephron filters in the kidneys, and the damage can be such as leaving both kidneys unable to remove wastes and toxins. Treatment for chronic kidney disease mainly focuses on slowing the progression of the damage to the kidney – usually by trying to control the underlying cause.
Prevention Of A Kidney Infection
Preventing kidney infections usually starts with preventing UTIs in the lower urinary tract. Steps you can take to help prevent UTIs include:
- Drink lots of water throughout the day.
- Urinate when you feel the urge to do so dont wait.
- Urinate after having sex.
- Dont use unnecessary cleansing or deodorizing products in the genital area.
- Steer clear of birth control methods that can raise the risk of a UTI.
If you do develop a UTI, get it treated as soon as possible. See your primary healthcare provider for treatment, or visit an urgent-care facility for diagnosis and a prescription for antibiotics.
Treating a UTI promptly may prevent it from spreading from your bladder to your kidneys.
Some Of The Functions Are Listed Below:
When your kidney is damaged, all these functions do not take place properly which as a result adversely affects your body. Due to the collection of waste products and fluid, swelling in your ankle occurs. Other symptoms can be nausea, weakness, poor sleep, and shortness of breath. If not treated at the right time, the situation may get worse. Best nephrologists in Indiaoften recommend immediate treatment to prevent further complications.