Wednesday, December 7, 2022

How To Prevent Hiv Infection

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Gender Equality And Empowerment Of Women And Girls At The Heart Of Our Approach

Stop new HIV infections now! Prevent | Test | Treat

We recognise that gender inequality are key underlying drivers of HIV and AIDS. Stigma against people living with HIV remains strong particularly against women with HIV.We support many programmes to tackle Gender Based Violence both in our HIV interventions and more broadly to promote gender equality.

Taking Hiv Medicine To Stay Healthy And Prevent Transmission

HIV treatment involves taking highly effective medicine that reduces the amount of HIV in your body. HIV medicine is recommended for everyone with HIV, and people with HIV should start HIV medicine as soon as possible after diagnosis, even on that same day.

People on HIV treatment take a combination of HIV medicines . A person’s initial HIV treatment regimen generally includes three HIV medicines from at least two different HIV drug classes that must be taken every day. Many people with HIV take two or more different HIV medicines combined in one pill. Long-acting injections of HIV medicine, given every two months, are also available if your health care provider determines that you meet certain requirements.

If taken as prescribed, HIV medicine reduces the amount of HIV in your blood to a very low level, which keeps your immune system working and prevents illness. This is called viral suppression, defined as 200 copies of HIV per milliliter of blood.

HIV medicine can also make your viral load so low that a standard lab test cant detect it. This is called having an undetectable viral load. Almost everyone who takes HIV medicine as prescribed can achieve an undetectable viral load, usually within 6 months after starting treatment. Many will bring their viral load to an undetectable level very quickly, but it could take more time for a small portion of people just starting HIV medicine.

I Have Sex Partners Who Are Living With Hiv And Have An Undetectable Viral Load Because They Are On Hiv Treatment Do I Still Need To Take Prep

Individuals living with HIV who are taking HIV treatment consistently and have an undetectable viral load for at least 6 months cannot transmit the virus to an HIV-negative partner through sexual activity. In sero-discordant or magnetic couples , PrEP may be used by the HIV-negative partner for additional protection.

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How To Prevent Infections By Sexual Transmission

The only sure way to prevent sexually transmitted diseases is to not have sexual intercourse or other sexual contact. That’s not an option for most people, so the next best choice is to follow these safer sex guidelines:

  • Engage in sexual contact only with one partner who is having sex only with you.
  • Both you and your partner should be tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

If you do have sex with a new partner, make sure the partner is tested, and take the following precautions:

  • For vaginal sex, use a latex or polyurethane condom or a female condom.
  • For oral sex, use a latex or polyurethane male condom or a female condom.

Needle And Syringe Programs

To Prevent HIV Infection, Couples Try Testing Together : Shots

Needle and syringe programs provide clean needles or syringes to people who inject drugs, reducing the risk of the transmission of HIV and other blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C. This is sometimes referred to as needle exchange.

The types of NSP outlet vary, from participating pharmacies to vending machines. Find an NSP in your state or territory:

You can also find a local needle and syringe program using the healthdirect Service Finder. Select By name and type needle into the search bar.

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If I Drink Alcohol And/or Use Recreational Drugs Is It Safe To Take Prep

Alcohol and recreational drugs are not known to interact with PrEP medications. It is safe to take PrEP before, after and on days when you are partying. In fact, it is important to take extra steps to make sure you take PrEP according to the healthcare providers directions when you are partying.

Sharing Needles And Injecting Equipment

If you inject drugs, this could expose you to HIV and other viruses found in blood, such as hepatitis C.

It’s important not to share needles, syringes, injecting equipment such as spoons and swabs, or the actual drugs or liquids used to dilute them.

Many local authorities and pharmacies offer needle exchange programmes, where used needles can be exchanged for clean ones.

If you’re a heroin user, consider enrolling in a methadone programme. Methadone can be taken as a liquid, so it reduces your risk of getting HIV.

A GP or drug counsellor should be able to advise you about both needle exchange programmes and methadone programmes.

If you’re having a tattoo or piercing, it’s important that a clean, sterilised needle is always used.

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How Can I Make Sure I Dont Give Hiv To Anyone During Sex

If you find out that you have HIV, try to stay calm. People living with HIV can have normal, healthy relationships and sex lives. But its important to take precautions to help your partner stay HIV-free.

There are a few ways that you can avoid giving HIV to other people:

  • Start treatment for HIV as soon as possible, and keep taking your HIV medicine. When you take it correctly, HIV treatment can lower or even stop your chances of spreading the virus to your sexual partners .

  • Theres a daily pill your partner can take to lower the risk of getting HIV, called PrEP.

  • Dont share needles for shooting drugs, piercings, or tattoos.

  • Get tested and treated for other STDs besides HIV regularly. Having other STDs makes it easier for you to spread HIV to others.

If you test positive for HIV, its important to tell your sexual partners about it so they can be tested, too. Even if youre really careful to not spread HIV, be honest with your future partners about your status so you can both be informed and help each other stay healthy. Read more about talking with your partners about HIV.

I Prefer Sex Without A Condom So I Don’t Always Use Them Would Prep Still Work To Prevent Hiv If I Don’t Use Condoms

Five Tips to Prevent HIV

If a person takes the PrEP medication consistently as directed, it provides a high level of protection against HIV. Condoms provide protection against sexually transmitted infections . People who are on the PrEP medication but are not using condoms may be exposed to an STI. It is important to be aware that having an STI can increase a persons chance of getting HIV if exposed to the virus. Some STIs dont have symptoms or symptoms may disappear on their own for periods of time. If you are not using condoms regularly, it would be especially important to have regular testing for STIs and to get treated as soon as possible if you have an STI. Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea should include swabs of a persons genitals, rectum and mouth. Learning about the signs and symptoms of STIs is helpful in identifying whether you or one of your partners has an STI. Condom use is recommended but choosing to not use condoms routinely should not prevent you from being prescribed PrEP.

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Prevention Of Mother To Child Transmission Of Hiv

Women living with HIV who become pregnant are more vulnerable to AIDS related pregnancy complications, putting their health and life at risk. There is also a high risk of transmission of the virus to their child. We support timely access to antiretroviral drugs to stop mother to child transmission of the virus and help the mother stay well.

Prevention And Control Measures For Hiv Infection And Aids

Even though HIV is preventable through effective public health measures, the HIV epidemic persists largely unchanged in the countries of the European Union and European Economic Area with around 30 000 newly reported diagnoses every year.

ECDC estimates that around 810 000 people are currently living with HIV in the EU/EEA of which 122 000 are not aware of their infection.

If diagnosed and treated early enough, people can live long and healthy lives with HIV. To reach the estimated 15% who are not aware of their infection, Europe needs to increase efforts to promote and facilitate more testing for HIV. And link those diagnosed to care.

Response should be strengthened and tailored to each countrys specific needs in order to control the HIV epidemic in Europe. This includes implementation of targeted, evidence-based HIV prevention programmes for key populations who are most at risk but might not be reached by current interventions like men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs and migrants from countries with generalised epidemics.

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What Are Some Behaviors That Can Raise A Woman’s Risk For Hiv

Behaviors that raise a womans risk for HIV include:

  • Having sex with a male partner who has had sex with another man or who has used intravenous drugs. Sex with a man is the most common way women are infected with HIV.
  • Using injection drugs and sharing needles. This is the second most common way that HIV is spread.
  • Abusing drugs and alcohol. This can lead to risky behavior, including having sex without a condom, not knowing a partners HIV status, or injecting drugs.

Women who drink alcohol or use drugs may also be at higher risk of sexual assault or rape, which may put you at risk for HIV. If you are assaulted or raped, you need to see a doctor right away. Your doctor may decide that you should get post-exposure prophylaxis . These drugs may lower your chances of getting HIV after you have been exposed to the virus. But these drugs work only if you see a doctor within three days of exposure.

Vaccinations Are Essential If You Are To Avoid Getting Sick

A daily pill can prevent HIV infection, but few take it

Consult your health care provider regarding your immunization status. In general:

  • Children should receive the recommended childhood vaccinations.
  • Adults should make sure their vaccinations are up to date.
  • When traveling abroad, check with your health care provider about additional immunizations.
  • Make sure your pet’s vaccinations are up to date, too. In addition to protecting your pet, this will also protect you and your family.

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Theoretical And Empirical Basis For Protection

Condoms can be expected to provide different levels of protection for various STIs, depending on differences in how the diseases or infections are transmitted. Male condoms may not cover all infected areas or areas that could become infected. Thus, they are likely to provide greater protection against STIs that are transmitted only by genital fluids than against infections that are transmitted primarily by skin-to-skin contact, which may or may not infect areas covered by a condom .

How Can I Take Care Of Myself While Living With Hiv

It’s very important to take your medications as prescribed and to make sure you dont miss appointments. This is called treatment adherence.

If you miss medications, even by accident, HIV can change how it infects your cells , potentially causing your medications to stop working. If your schedule prevents you from taking medications on time or making it to appointments, talk to your healthcare provider.

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What Is Treatment As Prevention

Treatment as Prevention refers to taking HIV medicine to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. It is one of the most highly effective options for preventing HIV transmission.

People with HIV who take HIV medicine as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral loada very low level of HIV in the bloodcan live long and healthy lives and will not transmit HIV to their HIV-negative partners through sex. This is sometimes called undetectable = untransmittable .

TasP works when a person with HIV takes HIV medicine exactly as prescribed and has regular follow-up care, including routine viral load tests to ensure their viral load stays undetectable.

Hiv Prevention Shot To Be Rolled Out If Approved

US approves first injectable drug to prevent HIV infection

The HIV prevention shot is expected to be rolled out in health facilities once the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority has approved it. Picture: Phando Jikelo/African News Agency

Nomonde Zondi

Durban The HIV prevention shot is expected to be rolled out in health facilities once the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority has approved it. This is according to Professor Saiqa Mullick, director of implementation science at the Wits Reproductive Health & HIV Institute.

Mullick said long-acting cabotegravir is a new HIV prevention method that provides eight weeks of continuous protection against HIV infection through a single intramuscular injection. This provides an alternative to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis , which can reduce the risk of HIV infection by 99%.

Unitaid, a global health initiative, said long-acting cabotegravir addressed challenges users face with regular pills that reduce the impact of oral PrEP in real-world settings. It also mitigates fears pills will be misinterpreted for HIV treatment and cause the user to suffer stigma, discrimination or intimate-partner violence as a result.

Mullick emphasised that one needed to be HIV-negative to be eligible to take the prevention shot. She said this would give people an additional choice.

We have an oral pill, but we know this can be difficult. People can forget to take the pill, or other things can get in the way, said Mullick.

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I’m Pregnant And Have Hiv Will My Baby Get Hiv

If you are getting treatment for HIV, the answer is most likely no. When HIV medicine is used consistently and correctly, a pregnant woman living with HIV who is treated for HIV early in her pregnancy can lower the risk of delivering a baby with HIV to less than 1%. Without treatment, this risk is about 25% in the United States.6

All women need to be tested for HIV during their first prenatal care visit, early in the pregnancy. High-risk women who get a negative HIV test result should be tested again later in pregnancy.

Treatment, called antiretroviral therapy, works best when it is:

  • Started as early as possible in pregnancy
  • Also given during labor and delivery
  • Given to the infant after birth

If you are HIV-positive and your viral load is greater than 1,000 copies per milliliter, your doctor may recommend delivering your baby by cesarean .

How To Reduce The Risk Of Getting Hiv

  • Get tested before you have sex. Know your partners HIV status and ask that he or she be tested.
  • Limit your number of sexual partners. Get tested regularly and get treated for any sexually transmitted infections . Insist that your partners do too. Having an STI can increase your risk of becoming infected with HIV.
  • Talk to your health care provider about pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, a prevention option for people who are at high risk of getting HIV. Its meant to be used consistently, as a pill taken every day, and to be used with other prevention options such as condoms.
  • Dont take intravenous drugs. If you do, use only sterile injection equipment and clean water. Never share your equipment with others.

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Whats The Difference Between Hiv And Aids

The difference between HIV and AIDS is that HIV is a virus that weakens your immune system. AIDS is a condition that can happen as a result of an HIV infection when your immune system is severely weakened.

You cant get AIDS if you arent infected with HIV. Thanks to treatment that slows down the effects of the virus, not everyone with HIV progresses to AIDS. But without treatment, almost all people living with HIV will advance to AIDS.

Preventing Hiv Infections In Infants And Young Children

Prevent the spread of HIV

Why address transmission of HIV in infants and young children?

HIV infection among children is an increasingly serious public health problem, threatening previous gains in reducing child mortality. In 2002, 800,000 children under the age of 15 contracted HIV, most live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Mother-to-child transmission causes more than 90% of all HIV infections in children under 15 years.The risk of a mother transmitting HIV to her infant is estimated to be 5-10% during pregnancy, 10-20% during labor and delivery and 5-20% through breastfeeding. Without preventive interventions, rates of mother to child transmission of HIV vary from 15% to 30% without breastfeeding and 30% to 45% with prolonged breastfeeding. Preventing mother-to-child-transmission of HIV has become an essential element of the worldwide HIV/AIDS control strategy. The Declaration of Commitment adopted at the UN General Assembly Special Session on AIDS set a goal of reducing the proportion of infants infected with HIV by 20% by 2005, and by 50% by 2010.

A comprehensive approach to prevent HIV infection in infants and young children

3: Prevention of HIV transmission from an infected-mother to her child.Specific interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV include:

How much will it cost?

Lessons Learned from pilot MTCT interventions

Key references

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When Should I Get Tested For Hiv

If you think you could have HIV or are at risk of HIV, talk to your doctor or sexual health clinic about having a test. Some people at high risk need to be tested regularly.

You should get tested for HIV if:

  • you have had unprotected sex with a partner whose HIV status is unknown or who has HIV but does not have a measurable amount of virus in their blood
  • you have had unprotected sex with a person from a country that has high rates of HIV infection
  • your sexual partner has recently travelled to a country that has high rates of HIV infection and may have had unprotected sex there
  • you have had unprotected sex with a sex worker in Africa, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia or Papua New Guinea
  • you have ever shared injecting equipment

Early diagnosis is important and can improve the long-term course of the illness.

It is a good idea to talk to your doctor or sexual health clinic about other STIs at the same time.

Your information will be kept confidential unless there are major concerns for your safety or the safety of others. HIV is a notifiable disease, which means laboratory staff need to inform the government about new cases, but this information is also confidential.

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