Generalised And Concentrated Epidemics: One Type Of Epidemic May Conceal Another
For UNAIDS, an epidemic is generalized when HIV prevalence exceeds 1% of the general adult population . For situations where HIV prevalence in this population is under 1% but exceeds 5% in vulnerable sub-populations , UNAIDS uses the term concentrated epidemic. Since 2006, the term hyper-endemic has been applied to the epidemic in southern Africa, where prevalence exceeds 15%. According to these definitions, most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have generalized epidemics with coexisting concentrated epidemics.
Hiv Deaths In The United States
In the United States, no less than 675,000 people have died of HIV since the first cases were reported back in 1981. In 1995, during the height of the AIDS crisis in the U.S., over 65,000 deaths were reported in that one year alone.
With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996 , the death rate plummeted. Within the span of three short years, the death rate in North America and Europe dropped by more than 50%âthe first such downturn since the start of the pandemic.
With the introduction of newer drugs and newer classes of antiretrovirals, the death rate has continued to decline.
According to a 2019 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , there were 15,815 deaths reported among the 1.2 million people living with HIV in the United States. That is a 7% drop from just five years earlier.
Despite the advances, there remains a clear disparity in the populations affected by HIV. Among some of the factors influencing mortality rates are geography, sex orientation, and race.
Although Strides Have Been Made In The Hiv Response Children Are Still Affected By The Epidemic
Of the estimated 38.4 million people living with HIV worldwide in 2021, 2.73 million were children aged 019. Each day in 2021, approximately 850 children became infected with HIV and approximately 301 children died from AIDS related causes, mostly because of inadequate access to HIV prevention, care and treatment services.
As of 2021, roughly 14.9 million children under the age of 18 had lost one or both parents to AIDS-related causes. Millions more have been affected by the epidemic, through a heightened risk of poverty, homelessness, school dropout, discrimination and loss of opportunities, as well as COVID-19. These hardships include prolonged illness and death. Of the estimated 650,000 people who died of AIDS-related illnesses in 2021, 110,000 of them were children under 20 years of age.
In 2021, around 160,000 children aged 09 were newly infected with HIV, bringing the total number of children aged 09 living with HIV to 1.02 million . Nearly 86 per cent of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. One bright spot on the global horizon is the rapid decline of approximately 52 per cent in new HIV infections among children aged 09 since 2010 due to stepped-up efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, the number of new HIV infections among adolescents has declined at a slower rate of about 40 per cent.
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How Does Cdc Know The Number Of People Living With Hiv If Some Of Those People Are Unaware Of Their Status
CDC estimates the number of people living with HIV by using a scientific model. This model helps CDC estimate the number of new HIV infections and how many people are infected but dont know it. HIV prevalence is the number of people living with HIV infection at a given time, such as at the end of a given year. More information on HIV prevalence.
The National Hiv/aids Strategy And Priority Populations
The National HIV/AIDS Strategy is the nationâs roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic in the U.S. by 2030. It recognizes racism as a serious public health threat that drives and affects both HIV outcomes and disparities. The Strategy also notes while HIV remains a threat in every part of the United States, certain populations bear most of the burden, signaling where our HIV prevention, care, and treatment efforts must be focused. It therefore designates five priority populations: Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, in particular, Black, Latino, and American Indian/Alaska Native men Black women transgender women youth aged 13-24 years and people who inject drugs.
Learn more: View NHAS-at-a-Glance.
For in-depth information about the impact of HIV on different racial and ethnic populations, see these CDC fact sheets:
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Boxed Warning: Risk Of Drug Resistance With Use Of Descovy For Prep In Undiagnosed Early Hiv1 Infection And Post
- DESCOVY FOR PrEP must be prescribed only to individuals confirmed to be HIV negative immediately prior to initiation and at least every 3 months during use. Drug-resistant HIV-1 variants have been identified with use of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV-1 PrEP following undetected acute HIV-1 infection. Do not initiate if signs or symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection are present unless HIV-negative status is confirmed
- Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in individuals infected with hepatitis B virus who discontinued products containing FTC and/or TDF and may occur with discontinuation of DESCOVY®. Closely monitor hepatic function with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in individuals with HBV who discontinue DESCOVY. If appropriate, anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted
Most Upsetting Hiv Statistics 2020
- 36.9 million people are infected with HIV worldwide
- Around 770,000 people have perished worldwide due to AIDS-related illnesses
- 23.3 million people worldwide used antiretroviral therapy against AIDS in 2018
- The rate of deaths caused by AIDS has been reduced by over 55% since 2004
- 63 out of 10,000 people who use an infected needle will get HIV.
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Hiv Prevention Programmes In South Africa
South Africa aims to reduce the annual number of new infections to under 100,000 by 2022.73
The government plans to achieve this by intensifying prevention efforts in the 27 districts that account for 82% of all people living with HIV and for the majority of new infections. It has also committed to achieving zero new infections due to mother-to-child transmission by 2022.74
In addition, the 2017-2022 South African National LGBTI HIV Plan commits to reaching 95% of people from the LGBTI community with HIV prevention and ensuring 90% of LGBTI people living with HIV know their status.75
A number of South Africas HIV prevention strategies being implemented to reach these targets are outlined below.
Preventing The Transmission Of Hiv
Its important for people especially those who have a high risk of contracting HIV to be tested frequently. Starting HIV treatment early is important for best outcomes. Approximately 44 percent of people ages 18 to 64 in the United States have reported receiving an HIV test. HIV education is mandatory in 34 states and in Washington, D.C.
From a public health perspective, preventing transmission of HIV is as important as treating those who have it. There has been remarkable progress in that regard. For example, modern-day antiretroviral therapy can reduce the chances of an HIV-positive person transmitting the virus by 100 percent, if the therapy is taken consistently to reduce virus to an undetectable level in the blood.
There has been a sharp decline in transmission rates in the United States since the mid-1980s. While men who have sex with men represent only 4 percent of the male population in this country, they comprise around 70 percent of those who newly contracted HIV.
Condom use remains an inexpensive, cost-effective first line of defense against HIV. A pill known as Truvada, or pre-exposure prophylaxis , also offers protection. A person without HIV can protect themselves from contracting the virus by taking this once-a-day pill. When taken properly, PrEP can reduce the risk of transmission by more than
Of that amount, $6.6 billion is for aid abroad. This expenditure represents less than 1 percent of the federal budget.
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Hiv Rates By Country 2021
HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a virus that is spread through certain body fluids, such as blood, and weakens a persons immune system by attacking cells that help fight off infection, specifically the CD4 cells. If HIV advances, it can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, if not treated.
Unlike most other viruses, the human body cannot fight off HIV completely therefore, once it is contracted, the individual has it for life. Luckily, it can be controlled and its progression can be slowed significantly. There are three stages of HIV:
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Risk Factors Contributing To The Black Hiv Rate
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Access to healthcare is very important in preventing and treating HIV/AIDS. It can be affected by health insurance which is available to people through private insurers, Medicare and Medicaid which leaves some people still vulnerable. Historically, African-Americans have faced discrimination when it comes to receiving healthcare.
Homosexuality is viewed negatively in the African-American Community. “In a qualitative study of 745 racially and ethnic diverse undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university, Calzo and Ward determined that parents of African-American participants discussed homosexuality more frequently than the parents of other respondents. In analyses of the values communicated, Calzo and Ward reported that Black parents offered greater indication that homosexuality is perverse and unnatural”.
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Do Some Parts Of The Country Have More Hiv Than Other Parts
Yes. HIV is largely an urban disease, with most cases occurring in metropolitan areas with 500,000 or more people. The South has the highest number of people living with HIV, but if population size is taken into account, the Northeast has the highest rate of people living with HIV.
HIV in the United States by Geographic Distribution is a fact sheet that explains the geography of HIV in the United States.
An Introduction To Global Hiv Statistics
For many years, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, also known as HIV, has affected millions of people throughout the world. To put things into perspective, HIV represents the leading cause of AIDS, a disease that is characterized by prolonged damage to the immune system, thus making it easier for patients to catch a variety of diseases.
HIV is transmitted via blood and during sex, yet protection methods are luckily available to reduce its spread. Below, readers will get to learn more about the condition through a variety of AIDS statistics.
At the moment, there are numerous misconceptions about HIV and AIDS, but we are here to disperse them. This article is meant to explain better the main facts and statistics associated with the virus. All the data we present here comes from reputable sources.
To kick things off, it is important to mention that a weakened immune system makes treating and catching diseases more difficult. As such, according to WHO HIV statistics and facts, the AIDS/HIV does not represent a direct cause of death but rather weakens the body, thus making it unable to fight infections that wouldnt normally be life-threatening. This leads to the high number of deaths that we are already accustomed to, caused by a variety of associated diseases.
Based on these aspects, this article will list several HIV statistics on a variety of subjects, including, but not limited to, how common HIV is, the demographics of AIDS, transmission rates, and more.
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How Does Hiv Affect Different Groups Of People
There are different ways to answer this question.
In 2020, male-to-male sexual contactdaccounted for68% of all new HIV diagnoses in the United States and dependent areas.In the same year, heterosexual contact accounted for 22% of all HIV diagnoses.
Data for 2020 should be interpreted with caution due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to HIV testing, care-related services, and case surveillance activities in state and local jurisdictions.NOTE: Does not include other and perinatal transmission categories.* Among people aged 13 and older.
If we look at HIV diagnoses by race and ethnicity, we see that Black/African American people are most affected by HIV. In 2020, Black/African American people accounted for 42% of all new HIV diagnoses. Additionally, Hispanic/Latino people are also strongly affected. They accounted for 27% of all new HIV diagnoses.
Data for 2020 should be interpreted with caution due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to HIV testing, care-related services, and case surveillance activities in state and local jurisdictions.* Among people aged 13 and older.Black refers to people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. African American is a term often used for people of African descent with ancestry in North America.Hispanic/Latino people can be of any race.
The most affected subpopulation is Black/African American gay and bisexual men.
Hiv Infections By State
In the United States, where you live plays a large part in how likely you are to get HIV. While it is clear that dense urban populations with high prevalence rates contribute to the risk, there are other unique factors that account for a growing disparity between U.S. states.
A prime example is the rate of infection in states that have either adopted or refused Medicaid expansion, intended to expand healthcare to economically disadvantaged people.
According to the CDC, the 13 states that refused Medicaid expansion account for 42% of all new infections. Florida, Texas, Georgia, and North Carolina represent the lion’s share of these infections.
Poverty remains a driving force for HIV infections, particularly in the South where the rates of poverty are highest. Moreover, nearly half of all Americans without health insurance live in the South.
With that being said, the Northeast has a higher prevalence rate overall, centered mainly in dense urban populations like New York City, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.
These dynamics are reflected in the 10 U.S. states with the highest HIV prevalence rates, according to the CDC.
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Youth also accounts for the highest rate of undiagnosed infections. Today, nearly half of all HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 and 24 are unaware of their status and, as a result, are more likely to infect others. The picture is little improved among adults 25 to 34, where one in three remains undiagnosed.
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What Is Ending The Hiv Epidemic In The Us
Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. is a bold plan announced in 2019 that aims to end the HIV epidemic in the United States by 2030. Agencies across the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services developed an operational plan to pursue that goal accompanied by a request for additional annual funding.
The plan leverages critical scientific advances in HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and outbreak response by coordinating the highly successful programs, resources, and infrastructure of many HHS agencies and offices. Initially, the initiative is focusing on areas where HIV transmission occurs most frequently, providing 57 geographic focus areas with an infusion of additional resources, expertise, and technology to develop and implement locally tailored EHE plans.
Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men account for 70% of all new HIV infections in the United States despite only accounting for 2% of the population. According to the 2019 CDC report, around 53% of HIV-associated deaths were are among gay and bisexual men.
Homophobia and stigmatization play a central role in this disparity, discouraging many MSM from seeking HIV testing, treatment, and care. These factors alone translate to a higher death rate.
According to a 2011 study in the American Journal of Public Health, MSM with HIV are 160 times more likely to die from HIV-related complications than men who exclusively engage in vaginal sex.
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What Is The Impact Of Hiv On Racial And Ethnic Minorities In The Us
HIV can affect anyone regardless of sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or where they live. However, in the United States, some racial/ethnic groups are more affected than others, given their percentage of the population. This is because some population groups have higher rates of HIV in their communities, thus raising the risk of new infections with each sexual or injection drug use encounter. Additionally, a range of social, economic, and demographic factors such as stigma, discrimination, income, education, and geographic region can affect peopleâs risk for HIV as well as their HIV-related outcomes.
Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino communities are disproportionately affected by HIV compared to other racial/ethnic groups. For example, in 2019, Blacks/African Americans represented 13% of the US population, but 40% of people with HIV. Hispanics/Latinos represented 18.5% of the population, but 25% of people with HIV.
Source: CDC, Estimated HIV incidence and prevalence in the United States, 2015â2019.
Among women, disparities also exist. Black women are disproportionately affected by HIV as compared to women of other races/ethnicities. Although annual HIV infections remained stable overall among Black women from 2015 to 2019, the rate of new HIV infections among Black women is 11 times that of white women and four times that of Latina women.
Right Data & Right Tools
Data tell us that most new HIV infections occur in a limited number of counties and among specific populations, giving us the information needed to target our efforts to those locales that will make the biggest impact on ending the HIV epidemic. Further, today we have the tools available to end the HIV epidemic. Landmark biomedical and scientific research advances have led to the development of many successful HIV treatment regimens, prevention strategies, and improved care for persons living with HIV. Notably:
With these powerful data and tools, we have a once-in-a-generation opportunity to end the HIV epidemic.
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