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Urinary Tract Infection After Menopause

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Treating A Urinary Tract Infection

Understanding Bladder Infections (UTIs) in Postmenopausal Women

Most urinary tract infections can be treated quickly and easily with antibiotics, and fortunately, symptoms usually disappear within two days. When taking antibiotics, its important to take all of the doses prescribed, even if you are feeling better before you run out of your medication. Failing to take the entire prescription as recommended could result in a relapse of the infection.

Systemic HT may reduce the urinary symptoms of urgency, frequency, nocturia, and painful urination, but there is continuing debate about the effectiveness of systemic HT in treating urogenital atrophy.

Local estrogen, applied externally, is helpful in relieving the symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, and stress incontinence, and can also help prevent urogenital atrophy and the recurrence of urinary tract infections.

The most common treatment for vaginal atrophy symptoms is low-dose vaginal estrogen level replacement, utilizing creams, tablets or vaginal rings.

However, some women are not able to have HT for any menopausal urinary symptoms such as women with breast cancer. For symptoms of vaginal atrophy, they can use vaginal moisturizers for normal relief and vaginal lubricants to relieve dryness prior to intercourse.

Upper urinary tract infections that affect the kidneys are much more serious and usually require a stay in the hospital. Your antibiotics may be administered intravenously while medical professionals monitor your health.

Preventing Utis With Drugs

At times, antibiotics are used as a preventative measure for those with frequent UTI recurrences. In addition, postmenopausal women can benefit from a different type of a medicinal prevention strategy.

  • Antimicrobial Prophylaxis In some cases of urinary tract infection recurrences, a physician may recommend antimicrobial prophylaxis, which is the use of antibiotics to prevent another infection. This has been shown to effectively reduce ones risk of recurrent UTIs in women with two infections over the previous year.
  • Postcoital Prophylaxis For those whose UTI recurrences are related to sexual intercourse, taking antibiotics after intercourse may be preferable. Depending on the frequency of intercourse, postcoital prophylaxis likely results in less antibiotic use than antimicrobial prophylaxis.
  • Estrogen for Postmenopausal WomenThe use of a vaginal estrogen cream or an estradiol-releasing vaginal ring have both been shown to be an effective strategy for reducing recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women. In fact, vaginal estrogen has been shown to reduce recurrent UTIs by 36 to 75 percent.

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Bladder Health For Older Adults

Everyone uses their bladder many times each day, but they may not know what to do to keep their bladder healthy.

Located in the lower abdomen, the bladder is a hollow organ, much like a balloon, that stores urine. It is part of the urinary system, which also includes the kidneys, ureters, and urethra. Urine contains wastes and extra fluid left over after the body takes what it needs from what we eat and drink.

As you get older, the bladder changes. The elastic bladder tissue may toughen and become less stretchy. A less stretchy bladder cannot hold as much urine as before and might make you go to the bathroom more often. The bladder wall and pelvic floor muscles may weaken, making it harder to empty the bladder fully and causing urine to leak.

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Who Is At Risk

Women at greater risk of contracting a UTI:

  • are sexually active
  • have urinary incontinence.

Frequent UTIs in women need further assessment. High fever and pain in the back can indicate a kidney infection and this needs urgent medical treatment.

A partner is not at risk of catching a UTI if you have sex. However, the symptoms may be uncomfortable and you may not feel like having sex.

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Why Are Menopausal Women More Prone To Utis Genitourinary Syndrome Of Menopause

Menopause: How to Avoid Urinary Tract Infections

As you go transition into menopause, your bodys production of estrogen begins to decline and your estrogen levels fluctuate and eventually decrease. These hormonal changes affect your urinary tract, vaginal tract, and vulva in ways that can make you prone to developing UTIs. These physical changes and the symptoms associated with them are known as the genitourinary syndrome of menopause .

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Diagnostic Testing For Uti

Diagnostic testing for cystitis includes an office urine dipstick, and urine culture. Whereas a positive urine dipstick in a symptomatic patient are generally considered sufficient evidence to support treatment based on an educated guess of a presumed urinary tract infection, urine cultures should be sent in patient in whom the diagnosis of cystitis is questionable or in whom complicating factors are present. We prefer that a patient arrives at the office with a comfortably full bladder to give a sample, because bacteria will continue to grow if the urine specimen is stored at room temperature. Urine dipstick is a simple urinary tract infection screening for the office or home that detects urine nitrites and leukocyte esterase. Although dipsticks can provide valuable clinical information, ultimately the physician should use clinical judgment and/or additional diagnostic testing to make a final decision regarding treatment.

Urine culture is considered the reference standard for diagnosis of a urinary tract infection. Cultures are submitted if there is a suspected complicated urinary tract infection, a negative dipstick in a symptomatic patient, poor response to initial therapy, and recurrent symptoms less than one month after treatment for a previous urinary tract infection for which no culture was performed.

Implementation Of A Clinical Protocol To Reduce Urinary Tract Infections Among Women With Urinary Retention After Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery

  • Rui WangAffiliationsDivision of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT
  • Elena Tunitsky-BittonAffiliationsDivision of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CTSearch for articles by this author

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You Can Look Out For The Following Symptoms To Confirm A Urinary Tract Infection:

  • Burning like sensation while urinating
  • Foul odor from the urine
  • Very frequent urge to urinate
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Uneasiness because of the incomplete passage of urine out of the body

To your surprise, the home remedies for urinary tract infections are quite simple to bring in effect. So, lets begin with the best home remedies to use for curing urinary tract infections in males.

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Cranberry Juice And Utis

MENOPAUSE TALK: Laughter, Leaks and Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Medical opinion is divided about cranberry juices effectiveness in treating or preventing UTIs and studies have shown mixed results. As there is no clear evidence, dont waste your money on cranberry products as they are not recommended at present. Although, if you enjoy them as part of your normal diet, they are a good source of vitamins and minerals, including Vitamin C.

Avoid taking these products if you are prone to kidney stones and if you are taking warfarin .

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Cranberry In The Prevention And Treatment Of Utis

Cranberry contains a proanthocyanidin that counteracts bladder colonization by E. coli by inhibiting the attachment of bacteria to the uroepithelial mucosa. Anti-inflammatory activity of cranberry extract prevents the development of symptoms but also to lower intercellular bacterial propagation, and thus reduces the frequency of UTIs and the propensity towards chronic infection.

Evidence shows that consumption of cranberry juice significantly reduces clinical UTIs episodes in women with a

Recurrent Uti In Menopause

UTIs can be treated with antibiotics, but they often recur. This recurrence is most common in women of post-menopausal age. To reduce the risk of UTI recurrence, postmenopausal women should drink plenty of fluids, empty their bladder regularly, and practice good hygiene. In addition, they should avoid douching and using feminine hygiene products that contain perfumes or dyes. If UTI symptoms persist despite these measures, it is important to see a doctor for further treatment.

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Keeping Your Urinary Tract Healthy After Menopause

Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women. When bacteria enter the urethra and then the bladder, this can cause an infection. UTIs can be a chronic problem, especially for postmenopausal women.

This article discusses the reasons why postmenopausal women are at an increased risk for UTIs. Then, we share some strategies for recurrent UTI prevention after menopause.

Natural Treatment Options At Home

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Though they can be treated with antibiotics, many people prefer to seek out natural treatment options. Here are a few of the most popular methods:

  • Cranberry juice has long been touted as a UTI cure-all. The theory is that the acids in cranberries can help to prevent bacteria from attaching to the urinary tract walls. Though there is some evidence to support this claim, cranberry juice is not a guaranteed fix.
  • Another popular home remedy is consuming garlic. Garlic contains allicin, an antimicrobial compound that can fight off infection-causing bacteria. Studies have shown that garlic is effective in treating both E. coli and Staphylococcus bacteria, both of which can cause UTIs.
  • Finally, many people find relief by drinking plenty of fluids. This helps to flush out the bladder and urinary tract, washing away any harmful bacteria. Water is the best option, but green tea and unsweetened cranberry juice can also be beneficial.

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Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

Women of all ages can suffer from urinary problems such as cystitis. In menopause, vaginal acidity declines, along with oestrogen levels, so women tend to get more urinary tract infections after menopause because of this. The conventional way of dealing with UTI is to prescribe antibiotics, but this only leads to a vicious cycle situation.

You do not have to accept urinary tract infections as just another part of menopause or of the ageing process. Neither do you need to get caught up in a vicious cycle syndrome of more antibiotics followed by a run of antifungal drugs. Restoring your body with bioidentical hormones gets to the root cause, helping to regenerate and repair the urinary tract tissue, and making it more difficult for bacteria to penetrate the walls of the bladder.

An Introduction To Bladder Infection And Menopause

Bladder infections, or cystitis, are bacterial infections which are unfortunately are all too common with the menopause. If the infection occurs elsewhere in the urinary tract, such as the urethra or kidneys, it is sometimes referred to as a Urinary Tract Infection .

The symptoms of a bladder infection or UTI can be unpleasant and uncomfortable, including cloudy and smelly urine, a burning or painful sensation when urinating, or a sensation of needing to urinate even when the bladder is empty. In some cases, you may also develop a slight temperature or fever. A bladder infection should be diagnosed by a doctor.

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What Causes Urinary Tract Infection

The vast majority of urinary tract infections are caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli , which is usually found in the digestive system. However, other pathogens may cause a UTI. These include:

  • Klebsiella pneumonia
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus

The bacteria may infect any part of the urinary tract bladder, urethra or kidneys. Depending on where the infection occurs, the UTIs are often known as:

  • Cystitis infection of the bladder
  • Urethritis infection of the urethra
  • Pyelonephritis infection of the kidneys

The infection in urethra and bladder is usually not very serious and clears up with treatment. Similarly, ureters very rarely get infected. However, if a UTI reaches the kidneys, it may lead to kidney infections and a person may have to go to the hospital for treatment.

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Why Are Utis More Common During Menopause

UTIs during menopause & why they keep coming back

UTIs are caused by growth of bacteria in the urinary tract. This includes the kidneys, ureters , bladder and urethra . Unfortunately, bacteria are amazing at getting into the urinary tract by travelling up the urethra from your genital area, especially thanks to the changes seen in this area of your body during your menopause journey. There are quite a few changes that, unfortunately, make getting a UTI more likely during menopause.

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At Least 50 Percent Of Women Will Experience A Uti In Their Lifetime

Editorial note: This article first appeared in the Womens Integrated Services in Health May 2015 newsletter.

Urinary tract infections account for eight million health care visits per year at the cost of $1.6 billion. Urinary tract infections account for fifteen percent of all patient prescriptions written. Unfortunately, women affected by recurrent urinary tract infections may attempt to cope with symptoms on their own instead of seeking treatment.

Recurrent urinary tract infection is a serious health condition that increases with age and peaks in menopausal women. The rate of urinary tract infections is 1 percent in young children and climbs to approximately 15 percent at age 60, and peaks at 25-50 percent after age 80. Whereas sexual activity and pregnancy are risk factors in younger women, vaginal thinning or vaginal atrophy, illness, and hospitalization are more important risk factors in menopausal women.

What Conditions Are Related To Recurrent Utis

Recurrent UTIs sometimes happen along with other conditions, such as:

  • vesicoureteral reflux , which is found in 30%50% of kids diagnosed with a UTI. In this congenital condition, pee flows backward from the bladder to the ureters. Ureters are thin, tube-like structures that carry pee from the kidney to the bladder. Sometimes the pee backs up to the kidneys. If its infected with bacteria, it can lead to pyelonephritis.
  • hydronephrosis, which is an enlargement of one or both kidneys due to backup or blockage of urine flow. Its usually caused by severe VUR or a blocked ureter. Some kids with hydronephrosis might need to take daily low doses of antibiotics to prevent UTIs until the condition producing hydronephrosis gets better or is fixed through surgery.

But not all cases of recurrent UTIs can be traced back to these body structure-related problems. For example, dysfunctional voiding when a child doesnt relax the muscles properly while peeing is a common cause of UTIs. Not peeing often enough also can also increase a childs risk for recurrent infections. Both dysfunctional voiding and infrequent urination can be associated with constipation.

Rarely, unrelated conditions that harm the bodys natural defenses, such as diseases of the immune system, also can lead to recurrent UTIs. Use of a nonsterile urinary catheter can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract and also cause an infection.

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Factors Associated With Recurrent Utis

Underlying medical and surgical conditions. A history of UTI before menopause or in childhood was more frequent in case patients than in control patients . Thus, only 6 of 53 control patients had had at least 1 episode of UTI before menopause as compared with 44 of the case patients . No differences were seen in the prevalence of other underlying diseases in the 2 groups, including diabetes mellitus . More case patients than control patients had undergone urogenital surgery . The reasons for surgery were total hysterectomy due to myoma or uterine carcinoma in 33 case patients and 5 control patients and prolapse of the urinary bladder in 7 case patients and 2 control patients.

Urologic factors. Incontinence was present in 61 of 153 case patients as compared with 5 of 53 control patients . None of the control patients had a cystocele observed during gynecologic evaluation in contrast to 19% of the case patients . Of the case patients, 9 had a mild cystocele, 18 had a moderate cystocele, and 2 had severe prolapse of the bladder.

Blood group and secretor status. There were no differences between the case patients and control patients in the distribution of blood groups or Rh factor. However, 76 of the case patients were nonsecretors versus 16 of the control patients .

Estrogen Specifically Impacts Positive Bacteria

Womenâs Health: Guide to Urinary Tract Infections &  Probiotics ...

In the second part of the study, the researchers focused on the 34 women who were taking menopausal hormone therapy. These women had more of a particularly helpful species of bacteria, Lactobacillus, in their urine.

The findings in this study suggest that hormone therapy may encourage colonization of the urinary tract with potentially beneficial Lactobacillus species. This in turn may provide colonization resistance against infection, De Nisco explains.

These results add to existing research supporting the beneficial effects of estrogen on the urogenital microbiome and its possible impact in reducing the prevalence of chronic UTIs, Dr. Ellerkmann says.

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Are There Herbal Remedies To Help Me

It is possible to take herbal remedies to support home measures while easing your symptoms of a bladder infection. Uva-ursi, also known as bearberry, is a small plant found in Europe, and has flowers of similar shape to a bladder. However, it is for more than this coincidence that Uva-ursi is used to relieve the symptoms of a bladder infection. It is thought to have antiseptic properties and promotes excretion of bacteria in the urine.

However, if you are looking for a herbal solution to support you throughout the stages of the menopause, and all the associated side-effects, then soy isoflavones which mimic the effect of oestrogen in the body can help to reduce unwanted symptoms. These can be found in herbal remedies, such as A.Vogelâs Menopause Support.

Newer Concepts In The Prevention And Treatment Of Utis

The oral immunostimulant, OM-89, is an extract of 18 different serotypes of heat killed uropathogenic E. coli, which stimulates innate immunity by increasing neutrophils and macrophage phagocytosis. OM-89 shows promise in the prevention of recurrent UTIs .

A similar concept is provided by the vaginal vaccine, Urovac: it contains 10 heat killed uropathogenic bacteria including 6 different serotypes of UPEC, and 1 strain each of Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and

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