What Are The Sinuses How Many Do We Have
A sinus is a hollow, air-filled cavity. For the purposes of this article, a sinus will refer to those hollow cavities that are in the skull and connected to the nasal airway by a narrow hole in the bone . Normally all sinuses are open to the nasal airway through an ostium. Humans have four pair of these cavities each referred to as the:
The four pairs of sinuses are often described as a unit and termed the “paranasal sinuses.” The cells of the inner lining of each sinus are mucus-secreting cells, epithelial cells, and some cells that are part of the immune system .
Functions of the sinuses include humidifying and warming inspired air, insulation of surrounding structures , increasing voice resonance, and as buffers against facial trauma. The sinuses decrease the weight of the skull. If the inflammation hinders the clearance of mucous or blocks the natural ostium, the inflammation may progress into a bacterial infection.
The South Florida Sinus And Allergy Center Diagnostic Approach
At South Florida Sinus and Allergy Center, you can expect Dr. Lee Mandel and his staff to ask you critical questions about your symptoms and medical history, including how often you experience sinus-related illnesses and any past treatments doctors recommended. From there, our providers will take a look inside your nose using a nasal endoscope. If your symptoms are related to the sinuses in any way, an ultra-low dose CT scan will be performed, as these screenings can provide details about why your sinuses might be bothering you. Dr. Mandel might also inquire about allergies, as they can sometimes be a root cause. Another possible cause of sinusitis is a fungal infection, meaning you may need to provide nasal culture samples.
How Long Do Symptoms Last
Typically, a sinus infection clears up within 2 to 3 weeks. COVID-19 lasts for about a week or two depending on its severity and your overall health.
A 2020 study surveyed 270 outpatients with COVID-19. Among them, 175 people reported returning to their usual level of health about 7 days after a positive COVID-19 test.
Some symptoms like cough and loss of smell or taste may linger temporarily after COVID-19. Some people may experience long-haul COVID-19, a group of symptoms that persist in the weeks and months following an infection.
Do I Have Covid Or A Sinus Infection
Although some of the symptoms are shared, there are several distinct ways to tell if you have covid or a sinus infection.
Its human nature to sometimes think the worst if you experience any symptoms in todays environment but in fact, the common cold, influenza, allergies, and sinus infections share some of the same symptoms as the COVID-19.
Heres how you can tell the difference and when you should consider seeking medical help.
Nasal Allergy Evaluation And Treatment
Sinus patients are given state-of-the-art allergy evaluations. The tests usually performed are allergy skin tests and blood tests. Both tests are used to identify the allergen causing the allergic reactions in the sinuses. While there is no cure for allergies, medications may be given to relieve symptoms. Immunotherapy may also be given to increase tolerance for allergens.
Recommended Reading: Can Hiv Cause Ear Infection
Treatment And Medication Options For Sinus Infection
Up to 70 percent of people with acute sinusitis recover without prescribed medications, according to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology .
Treatment for acute sinus infections focus on relieving symptoms, such as by:
- Drinking lots of fluids and getting plenty of rest
- Flushing out the sinuses with a saline nasal wash like a Neti Pot or a saline nasal spray
- Inhaling steam several times a day
- Using a humidifier
- Resting a warmed, moist washcloth or a warm compress over your nose and cheeks
What Home Remedies Help Soothe Sinus Infection Or Sinusitis Symptoms
Sinus infections caused by viruses can use home treatments such as pain and fever medications , decongestants, and mucolytics. In addition, some health care professionals suggest nasal irrigation or a sinus rinse solution to help relieve symptoms of sinus infections, even chronic sinusitis symptoms. This irrigation is accomplished with a “Neti-Pot” or a sinus rinse kit . The last reference of this article shows a video of a sinus rinse procedure. In 2012, the FDA issued a warning about the use of Neti-Pots. The FDA cautions people not to use untreated tap water for rinsing, as contaminated tap water rinses lead to two deaths.
Bacterial and fungal sinus infections usually require antibiotic or antifungal therapy so home treatments without them are often not successful. However, some authors suggest home treatments may reduce symptoms after medical therapy has begun some healthcare professionals recommend nasal irrigation after sinus surgery.
How Long Does A Sinus Infection Last
Sinus infections can last several days. Viral sinus infections are usually most severe three to six days after they start, and then begin to improve by day 10. A viral sinus infection can develop into a bacterial infection, which typically lasts longer than 10 days. Patients will usually respond to antibiotics within two to three days after a bacterial sinus infection is diagnosed and treated. After that, sinus infections can resolve anywhere between seven and 14 days.
There are three types of sinusitis. All three are based on length of symptoms:
How Do I Prepare For A Nasal Endoscopy
Ask your healthcare provider if you should stop taking any medicines beforethe procedure. These may include blood thinners. You should be able to eatand drink normally before the procedure. Your healthcare provider may giveyou more instructions about what to do before the test.
Just before the procedure, a topical decongestant may be sprayed into yournose. This helps reduce swelling and lets the nasal endoscope pass easilythrough your nasal cavity and sinuses. Your nose may also be sprayed withan anesthetic, which will briefly numb your nose. Healthcare providers mayneed to avoid these medicines under special circumstances, though. Incertain cases, you might also need a shot of anesthetic.
Also Check: How Do Wisdom Teeth Get Infected
How Is Sinus Infection Diagnosed
Diagnosis depends on symptoms and requires an examination of the throat, nose and sinuses. Your allergist will look for:
- Discolored nasal discharge
- Bad Breath
If your sinus infection lasts longer than eight weeks, or if standard antibiotic treatment is not working, a sinus CT scan may help your allergist diagnose the problem. Your allergist may examine your nose or sinus openings. The exam uses a long, thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and a light at one end that is inserted through the nose. It is not painful. Your allergist may give you a light anesthetic nasal spray to make you more comfortable.
Mucus cultures: If your sinus infection is chronic or has not improved after several rounds of antibiotics, a mucus culture may help to determine what is causing the infection. Most mucus samples are taken from the nose. However, it is sometimes necessary to get mucus directly from the sinuses.
Knowing what kind of bacteria is causing the infection can lead to more effective antibiotic therapy. A fungus could also cause your sinus infection. Confirming the presence of fungus is important. Fungal sinus infection needs to be treated with antifungal agents, rather than antibiotics. In addition, some forms of fungal sinus infection allergic fungal sinus infection, for example do not respond to antifungal agents and often require the use of oral steroids.
When To Seek Urgent Care For A Sinus Infection
Most minor sinus infections get better on their own without the need for medical treatment. More severe sinus infections, however, require urgent care.
First and most importantly, it is important to seek urgent care for a sinus infection if the symptoms begin to worsen or last for an extended amount of time. In the event you have severe trouble breathing due to your sinus infection, then be sure to come in for a visit as soon as possible to have your sinuses cleared out. Also, keep a close eye on your symptoms and seek medical attention if they do not improve after a week.
Additionally, urgent care is highly encouraged if your child develops a sinus infection as they have less of an ability to fight off the infection quickly. Also, it can be much more challenging to diagnose the cause of the sinus inflammation in children. In some cases, the reason could be due to an underlying allergy that you were not aware about.
When you visit, expect us to thoroughly examine you or your childs symptoms and document any information that is relevant to make a proper diagnosis. It may be helpful for you and your child to make a list of all of the symptoms that you or your child has been experiencing, any medications that are currently being taken and any allergies that may exist. Also, consider any questions you may want to ask the doctor at your visit.
Also Check: How To Tell If Tooth Infection Has Spread
Diagnosing A Sinus Infection Can Be A Diy Project
This is what the inflammation of sinus infection looks like in a false-color X-ray. It hurts even more in real life. CNRI/Science Sourcehide caption
Sinus infections are miserable, and it’s hard not to want to run to the doctor for relief. Rethink that, the nation’s ear, nose and throat doctors say.
Most people who get sinusitis feel better in a week, the doctors say, and many of those infections are caused by viruses. Getting an antibiotic isn’t going to help.
About Author: David Pruitt
David Pruitt is a writer for the Marketing & Communications division of OSF HealthCare. He has a bachelors of journalism from Southern Illinois University Edwardsville and worked as a reporter before joining OSF HealthCare in 2014. An avid golfer and fisherman, David was born and raised Alton, Illinois, which is where he currently resides with his son, James.
Also Check: Best Medication For Kidney Infection
Culture Directed Infection Control/recurrent Infection Control
In order to avoid antibiotic resistance in sinusitis sufferers, doctors perform a minimally invasive technique to culture mucus and identify the specific type of bacteria causing the infection. The patient is then given a targeted antibiotic that will work against the specific type of bacteria. Since this a targeted treatment, patients do not become resistant to the antibiotic treatment.
What Is A Sinus Infection And How Is It Different Than A Cold
Each year, about 31 million Americans experience sinus infectionsalso called sinusitiswhich are usually caused by germs growing in the sinuses, the hollow cavities found behind the nose, eyes, brows and cheekbones.
Most often, viruses cause sinus infections, but bacterial infections can cause sinusitis too, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Typically, a bacterial or viral infection causes mucous membranes in the sinuses to swell and block the tiny openings into the sinuses, which interferes with their ability to drain. The trapped mucus allows bacteria to breed, causing pain and pressure in the head and face.
While colds, which are also caused by viruses, can lead to sinus infections, a cold is not due to a buildup of germs in the sinus cavities. Its also important to note that while antibiotics can be helpful for those with sinus infections, they are useless when it comes to fighting cold viruses.
Also Check: Antibiotics For Ingrown Hair Infection
When Does Antibiotic Resistance Occur
Antibiotic resistance occurs in a persons own body and within the community when certain drugs no longer work for a specific type of germ. This can occur when bacteria change in response to exposure to antibiotics so that the antibiotics no longer work efficiently against the bacteria.
Therefore, allergists and other specialists recommend limiting the use of antibiotics unless:
- Symptoms last over seven to 10 days
- Specific symptoms are present
- A fever is present
Throat Irritation And Cough
As discharge from your sinuses drains down the back of your throat, it can cause irritation, especially over a long period of time. This can lead to a persistent and annoying cough, which can be worse when lying down to sleep or first thing in the morning after getting up from bed.
It can also make sleeping difficult. Sleeping upright or with your head elevated can help reduce the frequency and intensity of your coughing.
Recommended Reading: Best Antibiotic For Foot Infection
Is It Covid Or A Sinus Infection
The COVID pandemic has killed more than one million people around the globe. With the fall ushering in traditional influenza season, medical professionals express concern that the outbreaks will continue for the foreseeable future. Protecting yourself is of the utmost importance. One way to do this is to understand the differences between COVID-19 and the common sinus infection.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , the symptoms for COVID-19 appear two to 14-days after youve been exposed to the virus. The symptoms could be mild or severe depending on factors that were still trying to understand. They may include:
- Body aches
- Postnasal drip
- Tooth pain
Craig P. Chase, M.D., a partner of Oviedo Medical Research, says, For sinus infections versus COVID-19, sinus infections are usually something that youve had for a while. It could start with allergies, it could start with a cold, and then kind of evolve into a sinus infection.
Why Might I Need A Nasal Endoscopy
You might need a nasal endoscopy if your healthcare provider needs moreinformation about problems such as:
- Nasal congestion
- Loss of ability to smell
- Cerebrospinal fluid leak
The endoscopy can show specific details, such as the site of bleeding andswelling of nasal tissue. It can also be used to look at a growth thatmight be cancer.
In some cases, a nasal endoscopy can be used as a treatment. For example,it may be done on a child to remove a foreign object from his or her nose.
Your provider might also advise endoscopy to see how a treatment for a noseor sinus problem is working. For example, it can show if nasal polyps haveshrunk.
Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common reasons for nasal endoscopy. Youmay have symptoms such as nasal blockage, yellow or greenish fluid fromyour nose, and facial pain. Your healthcare provider can use the endoscopeto look for swelling and polyps. He or she may collect pus from theinfected area. This can help show what is causing an infection and how bestto treat it.
A healthcare provider may use a nasal endoscope to do minimally invasivesurgery. This is done in a hospital or surgery center. It can treatconditions such as sinus infection, nasal polyps, and nasal tumors. Thesurgery is done with very small tools, and does not need an external cut.
You May Like: Can Acyclovir Treat Yeast Infections
Symptoms Of Bacterial Sinus Infection
As per the guidelines, a sinus infection is more likely to be bacterial than viral if any of the following conditions are present.
- No clinical improvement occurs in the symptoms even after the passage of at least 10 days.
- The severity of the symptoms is quite high, including facial pain, nasal discharge and a fever in excess of 102°F which remains for at least 4 days on the trot at the start of the illness.
- Worsening of the symptoms is characterized by the development of a new headache or fever or increase in the amount of nasal discharge, usually after a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract that has remained for 6 days and had seemed to improve initially.
Diagnosing And Treating A Sinus Infection Online
Sinus infections are one of the most commonly treated conditions by Amwell physicians. Sinus infections are often mistaken for the common cold, but they are different conditions. While the two conditions are similar, the most likely symptoms for a sinus infection might include:
- Thick, yellow, foul-smelling discharge from your nose
- Pressure or pain around the eyes or cheeks
- Cold like symptoms that won’t go away or get worse
Many people think antibiotics are the number one treatment for sinus infections, but this is usually not the case. According to guidelines released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 90 to 98 percent of sinus infections aren’t caused by bacteria, meaning antibiotics will not work. Antibiotics are typically used to treat infections or diseases caused by bacteria. If your case of sinusitis is viral, antibiotics will be ineffective. In fact, antibiotics can be harmful to you if used inappropriately. Doctors can help determine if you have sinusitis, the type of sinusitis, if treatment is needed, or if a referral to a specialist is required.
Once a diagnosis has been made, your doctor will go over the risks and benefits of the various treatment plans. Depending on the cause and severity of the infection, your treatment plan may include:
- Home treatment options to help promote nasal drainage and ease symptoms i.e. salt water rinses
- A recommendation of over the counter medications including:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories i.e. Ibuprofen
You May Like: Boric Acid For Recurrent Yeast Infection
Using The Right Water During Saline Rinses
When using saline nasal rinses, tap water should always be boiled and then allowed to cool to ensure cleanliness distilled water or premixed solutions could also be used instead of regular tap water.
Other home remedies for sinus infections include:
- Drinking fluids: Drinking lots of fluids helps loosen and thin mucus. Avoid beverages that are caffeinated and alcoholic beverages that can dehydrate the body, which could thicken mucus.
- Breathing steam: Warm water is best . You can breathe in steam from either a bowl or shower.
- Humidifying the air: Use a cool air vaporizer or humidifier,particularly at night while sleeping.
- Avoiding environmental substances: Avoid tobacco smoke and chlorinated water that can dry up the mucus membranes and exacerbate symptoms.
- Implementing treatment measures: At the first sign of infection, use antihistamines and employ regular nasal rinses.