How To Prevent The Spread Of Hiv
People living with HIV can use the following to prevent transmitting it to others:
- Preexposure prophylaxis : This daily pill contains two antivirals: Tenofovir and emtricitabine. When a person takes it daily, PrEP can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV through sex by 99%. PrEP is for those who do not have HIV but are at a high risk of contracting it.
- Postexposure prophylaxis : ART drugs that can prevent HIV infection after potential exposure. The CDC recommend starting PEP within of a recent potential HIV exposure.
Get Treatment For Sexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually transmitted infections increase the chance of both spreading and contracting HIV. If a person has HIV and another STI, that person has greater the chance of transmitting HIV, as opposed to a person who only has HIV but no other STI .
This works both waysâa person who does not have HIV but does have another STI has a greater chance of contracting HIV if they have unprotected sex with someone who has HIV . This is because STIs that cause open sores or irritation which breaks the skinâs barrier provide an entrance for HIV to enter the body during all types of unprotected sex .
Other STIs that donât cause openings in the skin can still increase the risk of contracting HIV. This is because STIs cause inflammation to the genital area, drawing in more immune cells to the area, which are the target for HIV .
What Is Hiv And What Is Aids
HIV/AIDS are widely known as incurable sexually transmitted diseases, but you might not know the difference between these acronyms and what they stand for.
For simplicityâs sake, HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
If a person takes a blood test and receives a diagnosis of HIV, then they are HIV positiveâif a person does not have HIV, then they are HIV negative. HIV causes havoc in a personâs body by weakening their immune system . HIV progressively destroys the cellular part of the immune systemâparticularly types of white blood cells called CD4 cellsâwhich, over time, makes the person become immunodeficient .
As the HIV infection develops in the body, the person will become more and more immunodeficient until they reach a point where they are classified as having Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome . This is often the end stage of an HIV infection, where a personâs body is so immunodeficient that they develop infections, diseases, or cancers and are no longer able to mount a immune defense and fight them off .
There is no cure for HIV . But, if a person does become infected with HIV there are treatments available which can help keep a person healthy.
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For Some Pregnancy Is A Risk With Condomless Sex
According to Planned Parenthood, condoms are 98 percent effective at preventing pregnancy when used perfectly every time, and around 85 percent effective when used normally.
Couples who have sex without condoms and wish to avoid pregnancy can consider an alternate form of contraception, such as an IUD or the pill.
Do Condoms Always Prevent Hiv Transmission
Condoms are classed as medical devices so therefore must meet essential requirements and go through quality tests.
Always check the expiry date of the condom, and choose condoms that carry the BSI kite mark and the European CE mark. These are recognised safety standards.
Condoms are most effective when used properly, which includes using one that is the right size. Condoms come in different widths and lengths, so it may take a while to find the right condom.
Here are some basic things you can do to make sure you’re using a condom properly:
- use a new condom each time you have sex
- put the condom on as soon as an erection occurs and before any sexual contact
- avoid using an oil-based lubricant, such as Vaseline or baby oil, which can weaken the condom and increase the chances of it splitting water-based lubricants are best and can be bought at most supermarkets or pharmacies
- the person wearing the condom should withdraw from their partner immediately after ejaculating, holding the condom firmly to keep it from slipping off
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Chance Of Getting Hiv From One Encounter
It would be great to know how many times it takes to get HIV, but unfortunately, there is no guarantee that even with a risk of less than 1%, that someone will not get HIV from one encounter. So, even though there is a relatively small chance of getting HIV from a one-night stand or engaging in sexual activity with an infected partner once, the overall chance of getting infected increases with repeated exposure. Additionally, suppose the HIV-negative partner has an STI. In that case, the risk of getting HIV from an infected partner is higher, partially due to the possibility of having an open sore or ulcer.
As you can see, the most significant risk of exposure is non-sexual through a blood transfusion. So, while sexual activity is a major source of transmission, with proper preventative measures, the risk can be lowered. However, as with anything, understanding the risk is critical in making the choice that is right for you, and the only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested.
What Is Art And How Does It Help Prevent Hiv
Antiretroviral therapy is a combination of medicines that slows down the effects of HIV in your body and can help you stay healthy for many years. It can also lower or even stop your chances of giving HIV to anyone else.
ART lowers the amount of HIV in your body sometimes to the point where HIV wont show up on standard blood tests. If your HIV viral load is so low that certain tests cant see it, its called undetectable. When someone has an undetectable viral load, they cant spread HIV to others during sex.
Its important to remember that even with an undetectable viral load, HIV is still present in your body. If you stop treatment your viral load can go up, making it possible to pass HIV to others you have sex with. Your doctor or nurse can help you find the treatment thats best for you to help keep your viral load low, so you can stay healthy.
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No 1 Sharing A Needle: 1 In 159
About 6 percent of the HIV diagnoses in 2015 can be attributed to the use of injection drugs, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . The reason is that needles, syringes, and other equipment can contain blood, and therefore HIV, which can then be directly transmitted into the bloodstream. Under the right environmental circumstances, the virus can survive in a used needle for up to 42 days, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, using drugs can lower peoples inhibitions, making them less likely to use a condom during sex or to take preventive HIV medications, further increasing their risk.
- Reduce the risk. Although the number of HIV diagnoses among people who inject drugs has declined by 48 percent from 2008 to 2014, according to the CDC, experts worry that the rising opioid epidemic is putting new people at risk for getting the virus. To find substance abuse help, call the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations national helpline at 1-800-662-HELP or visit its website, findtreatment.samhsa.gov, for a list of treatment facilities near you.
- Reduce the risk. People who inject drugs can help lower their risk of exposure to HIV by using a sterile needle and syringe for each injection sterile needles can be obtained without a prescription at pharmacies and through syringe services programs at state or local health departments.
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Condoms: Tried Tested And True
Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, condoms have been a cornerstone of our HIV prevention efforts often promoted as the most effective way to prevent the sexual transmission of the virus. However, in the past few years the number of HIV prevention options has increased and some people are interested in, or are already using, newer strategies. As a result, frontline service providers are being asked challenging questions: Are condoms the most effective strategy available? How do they compare to other strategies? This article explores the evidence on how effectively condoms prevent HIV transmission and the implications for our HIV prevention messaging.
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Challenges In Calculating A Number
It isn’t easy for researchers to calculate the risk of transmission from an exposure to HIV through sex. To do this effectively, a group of HIV-negative individuals need to be followed over time and their exposures to HIVboth the number of times they are exposed and the types of exposureneed to be tracked.
As you can imagine, accurately tracking the number of times a person is exposed to HIV is very difficult. Researchers ask HIV-negative individuals enrolled in these studies to report how many times they have had sex in a given period of time, what type of sex they had, how often they used condoms and the HIV status of their partner. Because a person may have trouble remembering their sexual behaviour or may not want to tell the whole truth, this reporting is often inaccurate.
Furthermore, a person does not always know the HIV status of their partner. For this reason, researchers usually enroll HIV-negative individuals who are in stable relationships with an HIV-positive partner . Researchers can then conclude that any unprotected sex reported by a study participant counts as an exposure to HIV.
When Your Partner Is Hiv Negative
Finding out that you have HIV doesnt mean an end to relationships with HIV negative partners. These relationships are sometimes called serodiscordant.
Whether you were diagnosed with HIV during a relationship, or you knew you were HIV positive when the relationship started, its important for your partner to know their status too.
Remember that if youre on treatment and have an undetectable viral load, you canât pass on HIV.
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How To Actually Prevent Stds
The only acceptable prevention that is 100% effective is also Catholic-approved! Abstain from sexual activity before marriage, and if you marry, be faithful for life to your spouse.
You care about your physical welfare. The Catholic Church, knowing the science, isnt trying to spoil your fun but teach the Truth that is, respect yourself and your spouse if you have one, because everyone is made in the image and likeness of God. Sexual intimacy is not for selfish gratification, but rather it unifies husband and wife and invites the gift of children.
The human family is so beautiful that the only way to preserve it is to care for the soul as well as the body. We have many, many articles explaining why contraception is not only unhealthy but also spiritually harmful. Remember, if there is no such thing in life as a free lunch, do you honestly believe sexual gratification would come without consequences?
Dr. Brian Clowes research contributed to this report.
Syphilis CDC Fact Sheet , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Genital HPV Infection Fact Sheet, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Genital Herpes CDC Fact Sheet, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Warner et al., Condom Use and Risk of Gonorrhea and Chlamydia: A Systematic Review of Design and Measurement Factors Assessed in Epidemiologic Studies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases 33, no. 1 : 36-51.
UNAIDS Data 2021, 212.
At What Stage Of The Infection Can Hiv Be Transmitted
Someone with HIV can pass on the virus if they have a detectable viral load.
This often happens during the first few months after infection when the levels of the virus in their body fluids are at their highest and they may not yet have been diagnosed.
This is why testing and early diagnosis are so important you can start treatment right away to protect your health and reduce your viral load to undetectable levels.
It can also happen when an object that has body fluids on it is put inside an HIV negative person during sex.
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When To Use A Condom
The exception is for couples who have both tested negative for HIV and other STIs and are only sexually active with each other. However, the most recent test for both members of the couple should have been after the window period for any possible previous exposure.
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When A Person Should Get Tested For Hiv
If a person believes theyve been exposed to HIV, its important for them to see a healthcare professional as soon as possible.
No test can accurately detect HIV in the body immediately after exposure. Theres a time frame or window period before a person can be tested for HIV and receive accurate results.
Regardless of the type of test after potential HIV exposure, a person should get tested again after the window period has passed to be certain.
People with a higher chance of contracting HIV should get regularly tested .
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Condom Broke And Later Learnt Hes Hiv+
Almost 2 months ago I hooked up with a friend , it was a group of about 7 people. I suggested we test me and my friend carried it ,everyones kit at that moment had one stripe till his was getting the 2nd line and one friend hide it The rest saw us with condoms and didnt make a big deal about my friends kit now having 2 lines since we were already in the bedroom. While in there the CD broke up and he only made one thrust then I realised I helped him put another rubber we finished and joined the rest. In btn these months we never talked since it was just a friendly match and were never that close.
I rarely have sex and since then I havent slept with any man. My instincts tells me Im well buy you know theres an inner fear .
Condoms Are Made From Different Materials
Its possible to purchase condoms made from a variety of different materials, including latex and synthetic materials, like polyurethane and polyisoprene.
Lambskin condoms are more porous than other types of condoms. This allows germs, particularly viruses, to pass through the condom. Because of this, theyre not effective at preventing HIV and many other STIs.
Its estimated that about of the worldwide population is allergic to latex. People with a latex allergy can use condoms made of synthetic material to prevent having an allergic reaction while protecting against HIV transmission.
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Viral Load & Medications
If someone has HIV, this does not mean that they are restricted to celibacy. Many people with HIV still continue to have safe, enjoyable sex lives without spreading the virus. Always using a condom or barrier method is an important first step to prevent the sharing of HIV containing fluids.
Antiretroviral therapy : Another way to help decrease the risk of spreading HIV is to lower a personâs viral loadâthe amount of HIV in a personâs blood. Viral loads can be lowered using medications called antiretroviral therapy . These medications can lower the HIV viral load so much that HIV may not even be detectable on a blood testâthis is called an undetectable viral load . When a person’s viral load in undetectable, they have effectively no risk of transmitting the HIV virus to a non-infected partner . Taking these medication will help keep a person with HIV healthy while also helping prevent the spread of HIV to another person. This is not a cure, however. If medication is taken incorrectly or stopped, HIV viral loads will increase again and transmission can occur. Condoms and other barrier methods should still always be used during sex .
If you have HIV and have an undetectable viral load, you should still tell your partner before having sex.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis : Medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis can be taken daily to decrease the risk of contracting HIV if exposed .
How Can You Protect Yourself From Hiv And Stds
- Avoid or put off having sex. If you do have sex, use a male latex or female condom every time.
- Latex male condoms and female condoms, when used the right way every time, are very effective in preventing HIV and many other STDs. Condoms may prevent the spread of other STDs like HPV or genital herpes, only when the condom covers the infected areas or sores.
- Talk with your partner about HIV and STDs.
- Don’t share drug “works”
- Get STD and HIV counseling and testing.
To find out if you might have an STD, visit your doctor or clinic as soon as you can.
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