Taxonomy And Genome Structure
EpsteinBarr virus is a member of the genus Lymphocryptovirus, which belongs to the lymphotropic subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae of the family Herpesviridae. EBV is closely related to the lymphocryptoviruses present in Old World nonhuman primates, including EBV-like viruses of chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys. These viruses share homologous sequences and genetic organization, and infect the B lymphocytes of their host species, resulting in the establishment of latent infection in vivo and transformation in vitro. A transforming, EBV-related virus has also been isolated from spontaneous B-cell lymphomas of common marmosets and is thus the first EBV-like virus to be identified in New World primates. The genome of this marmoset LCV revealed considerable divergence from the genomes of EBV and Old World primate EBV-related viruses, suggesting that this virus represents a more primitive predecessor of the LCVs infecting higher-order primates.
Charles T. Leach, Ciro V. Sumaya, in, 2009
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Ebv And Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease is another common neurodegenerative disorder of aging caused by a combination of genetic and underlying environmental factors. The main pathological features of PD are degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, reduction of striatal dopamine, and the formation of abnormal protein aggregates in neurons, such as Lewy vesicles. The aging nervous system is susceptible to the direct and indirect effects of infection, and bacterial or viral infections are considered a potential risk factor . Predominantly lymphocytic leukocytosis, mildly increased protein levels, and EBV antibodies in the CSF and serum of patients with PD suggest the involvement of EBV infection in the development of PD .
Despite the current progress in elucidating the pathogenesis of PD and the symptomatic treatment of PD-related symptoms, the mechanisms of EBV involvement in PD development are poorly understood, and further research is needed to develop relevant and effective treatments for improving and protecting neurons and delaying disease progression.
Reduction In Blood Cells
In a few cases, glandular fever can lead to a reduction in some blood cells. It can reduce levels of:
- red blood cells this can make you feel tired and out of breath
- white blood cells this can make you more prone to developing a secondary infection
- platelets this can make you bruise and bleed more easily
In most cases, the reduction in the number of blood cells is small and only causes mild symptoms. These problems should get better by themselves within a few weeks or months.
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How Can I Prevent Epstein
Since there is no vaccine for Epstein-Barr virus, you can take steps to prevent getting the virus by:
- Not sharing food or drinks with someone who has the virus.
- Not kissing someone who has the virus.
- Not sharing a toothbrush with someone who has the virus.
- Using protection when having sex with someone who has the virus.
- Washing your hands after touching something with saliva on it and not putting your hands near your mouth after touching an object that has saliva or drool on it.
Preventing The Spread Of Infection
There is no need to be isolated from others if you have glandular fever as most people will already be immune to the Epstein-Barr virus .
You can return to work, college or school as soon as you feel well enough. There is little risk of spreading the infection to others as long as you follow commonsense precautions while you are ill, such as not kissing other people or sharing utensils.
It is also important to thoroughly clean anything that may have been contaminated by saliva until you have recovered.
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Caebv Definition And Features
Chronic active EpsteinBarr virus disease is usually defined as a chronic illness lasting at least 6 months, an increased EBV level in either the tissue or the blood, and lack of evidence of a known underlying immunodeficiency . Other authors, particularly when defining severe CAEBV disease, require both an elevated level of EBV in the blood as well as infiltration of tissues by EBV-positive lymphocytes . Recently, the duration of illness required for defining the disease has been shortened to 3 months . Former definitions required elevated levels of antibody to EBV viral capsid or early antigen in the blood however, we have found that elevated levels of EBV DNA in the blood are more specific for CAEBV than elevated levels of EBV antibodies. Most laboratories now perform ELISA tests for EBV antibodies, and these are often less helpful than the previously used quantitative immunofluorescent assay using endpoint dilution of serum. It is important that DNA PCR is done using either whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells, rather than plasma or serum which is much less sensitive for diagnosis of CAEBV disease.
Figure 1. Histopathologic features of a 47-year-old female patient with T cell chronic active EpsteinBarr virus disease. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Small- to medium-sized lymphocytes without significant atypia infiltrate the bone marrow clot. EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridization. The brown staining lymphocytes are positive for EBV RNA.
Other Diseases Caused By Ebv
EBV is best known for causing mononucleosis, but less often it can lead to other diseases, including:
- Ear infections and diarrhea in children
- Guillain-Barre syndrome
- Certain cancers, including Burkitt’s lymphoma and cancers of the nose and throat
Studies also show a link between EBV and multiple sclerosis , but more research is needed to determine if the virus can lead to MS.
Ebv And Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that can involve white matter and, in rare cases, gray matter lesions in acute or subacute states. It is common in children and is characterized by demyelinated lesions throughout the brain and spinal cord, and can even involve the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. The clinical features include acute onset, multifocal neurological deficits with a monophasic course, and a typical clinical course of rapid neurological deterioration over several days. Most patients have viral prodromal symptoms followed by the development of focal neurological deficits and a good prognosis after symptomatic treatment, although some cases experience severe complications and mortality .
What Causes Glandular Fever
Glandular fever is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus . This virus is found in the saliva of infected people and can be spread through:
- kissing glandular fever is often referred to as the “kissing disease”
- exposure to coughs and sneezes
- sharing eating and drinking utensils, such as cups, glasses and unwashed cutlery
EBV may be found in the saliva of someone who has had glandular fever for several months after their symptoms pass, and some people may continue to have the virus in their saliva on and off for years.
If you have EBV, it’s a good idea to take steps to avoid infecting others while you are ill, such as not kissing other people, but there’s no need no need to avoid all contact with others as the chances of passing on the infection are generally low.
Read more about the causes of glandular fever.
Causes Of Glandular Fever
Glandular fever is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus . EBV is most often spread through the saliva of someone who carries the infection.
For example, it can be spread through:
- kissing glandular fever is sometimes referred to as the “kissing disease”
- sharing food and drinks
- exposure to coughs and sneezes
Small children may be infected by chewing toys that have been contaminated with the virus.
When you come into contact with infected saliva, the virus can infect the cells on the lining of your throat.
The infection is then passed into your white blood cells before spreading through the lymphatic system.
This is a series of glands found throughout your body that allows many of the cells that your immune system needs to travel around the body.
After the infection has passed, people develop lifelong immunity to the virus and most won’t develop symptoms again.
Many people are first exposed to EBV during childhood, when the infection causes few symptoms and often goes unrecognised before it eventually passes.
Young adults may be most at risk of glandular fever because they might not have been exposed to the virus when they were younger, and the infection tends to produce more severe symptoms when you’re older.
Symptoms Of Glandular Fever
Fever and sore throat with exudate around the tonsils and pharynx are typical symptoms of glandular fever. Other clinical features include:
- enlarged lymph nodes
- enlargement of the spleen this occurs in 50 per cent of cases
- jaundice this affects approximately four per cent of people with glandular fever.
The symptoms usually develop four to six weeks after infection with the virus. In young children, glandular fever usually causes mild or no symptoms.Most people are infected with Epstein-Barr virus at some point in their lives, but not all develop symptoms of glandular fever. Up to 50 per cent of people who are infected with the Epstein-Barr virus will develop symptoms.
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Symptoms Of Infectious Mononucleosis
In most children younger than 5 years, the infection causes no symptoms. In adolescents and adults, it may or may not cause infectious mononucleosis.
The usual time between infection and the appearance of symptoms is thought to be 30 to 50 days. This interval is called the incubation period.
The four main symptoms of EBV infectious mononucleosis are
Other very rare complications include seizures, nerve damage, behavioral abnormalities, inflammation of the brain or tissues covering the brain and of the fluid-filled space between the meninges when it is caused read more ), anemia, and blockage of airways by the swollen lymph nodes.
How long symptoms last varies. After about 2 weeks, symptoms subside, and most people can resume their usual activities. However, fatigue may persist for several more weeks and, occasionally, for months. Fewer than 1% of people die, usually because of complications such as encephalitis, rupture of the spleen, or blockage of the airways.
Active Versus Inactive Infections
Infection with EBV includes an active phase and an inactive, latent phase. When a person is first infected, the virus is actively multiplying and spreading through the body. In the case of EBV, a person might or might not have symptoms from the virus during this time.
Later comes the inactive phase. Here, the virus still can be found in some cells of your body, but it isnt actively dividing or causing any symptoms.
The virus inserts some of its own DNA into your DNA, which might or might not cause problems down the line. Your body hasnt completely gotten rid of the virus. That is what happens with EBV.
Sometimes, an inactive virus becomes active again. That can happen in other infections, like in hepatitis B infection, and it can also happen in EBV. Usually, people dont experience symptoms during this reactivation phase, but they are much more likely to spread the virus during this time.
Reactivation of the virus is particularly a concern for people who have impaired immune systems, who are more at risk from some of the potential complications from EBV, like certain cancers.
What Is Infectious Mononucleosis
Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by swollen lymph glands, fever, sore throat, and extreme fatigue. Its often spread through contact with infected saliva from the mouth. Symptoms can take between 4 to 6 weeks to appear and usually do not last beyond 4 months. Transmission is impossible to prevent because even symptom-free people can carry the virus in their saliva.
Ebv And Alzheimers Disease
Alzheimers disease is a multifactorial, common, complex, and severe neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline accompanied by a decline in motor function. The main pathological hallmarks are the aggregation of amyloid-beta peptides forming extracellular plaques and aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau forming intracellular neurofibrillary tangles with neuroinflammation, gliosis, and neurodegeneration . Viral infections may be risk factors for susceptibility to AD . Researchers have found that different viruses may involve different pathways and have varying distributions in different brain regions, and infection-related factors can enter the brains of older adults inducing chronic inflammation, leading to neurodegeneration .
During its latency and reactivation phases, EBV can stimulate a systemic stress immune response, which induces inflammation and, consequently, cognitive decline during aging . However, there are few studies on the pathogenesis of EBV in AD, and further research is needed. This area of research should be a focus of future studies and may help to better elucidate the role of viral infection in the pathogenesis of AD.
What Tests Diagnose Epstein
To confirm your diagnosis, your provider will perform a blood test called Epstein-Barr virus antibody test. This test takes a sample of your blood to detect antibodies that cause EBV. Your provider may need to repeat the test between 10 days to two weeks after the first test because antibodies might not show up early in your diagnosis.
How The Condition Progresses
Most symptoms of glandular fever will usually resolve within two or three weeks. Your throat will normally feel most sore for three to five days after symptoms start before gradually improving, and your fever will usually last 10 to 14 days.
Fatigue is the most persistent symptom and often lasts a few weeks, although some people may feel persistently fatigued for several months after the other symptoms have passed.
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When To See Your Doctor
There are some rare complications of mono, so see your doctor if you or your child has any of these symptoms:
- Sudden, sharp pain on the left side of the belly, which could mean a problem with your spleen
- Very little urine, a sign of dehydration
- Trouble breathing or swallowing — call 911 immediately
Also call if your symptoms don’t go away after 4 to 6 weeks. You could have another type of infection besides mononucleosis.
Treating The Symptoms Of Glandular Fever
While glandular fever itself cannot be treated, you can treat the symptoms to try and remove some of the discomfort. Suggestions include:
- rest, as required
- stay well hydrated
- use over the counter medications such as paracetamol or ibuprofen, as directed on the packet, for management of fever or pain
- gargle with a glass of warm water to ease your sore throat sucking on sugar-free lollies or lozenges may also help.
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How Long Glandular Fever Lasts
You should feel better within 2 to 3 weeks. Some people might feel extremely tired for months.
Try to gradually increase your activity when your energy starts to come back.
Glandular fever can cause your spleen to swell. For the first month, avoid heavy lifting and sports or activities that might increase your risk of falling, as this may damage your spleen.
What Is The Epstein
Epstein-Barr virus is a virus in the herpesvirus family that can infect humans. EBV infections are very common you may have already contracted the virus without even knowing it.
The condition that you may associate EBV infection with is infectious mononucleosis, or mono. However, experts are researching potential links between EBV and other conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and long COVID.
Read on to learn more about EBV, including common symptoms of an infection and how the virus spreads.
EBV infections dont always cause symptoms. This is especially true for children.
Teens and adults are more likely to experience symptoms, which can include:
2 to 4 weeks , though feelings of fatigue may linger for weeks or months.
If you have an enlarged spleen, doctors may recommend restricting contact sports until youve fully recovered to prevent rupture.
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About The Epstein Barr Virus
The Epstein Barr virus is part of the human herpesvirus family. It only affects humans, and the scientific name for it is herpesvirus 4 or HHV-4. This virus is widespread and causes one of the most common and well-known infections infectious mononucleosis.
Most people refer to infectious mononucleosis as mono or the kissing disease. Its very contagious, but not everyone who is exposed to the virus will develop symptoms. Its commonly contracted through the spread of bodily fluids like saliva, hence the nickname.
It also is one of the infections that can cause infected tonsils, or tonsilitis.
Primary Infection With Ebv
Infectious mononucleosis presents typically in 75% of young adults 15% have an atypical presentation, and infection in 10% is asymptomatic. Children are often asymptomatic or presumed to have a non-specific viral infection.
There are two typical presentations:
- abrupt onset of severe sore throat with cervicallymphadenopathy
- gradual onset of low-grade fever, malaise, arthralgia, and myalgia.
Spleen and liver
- Splenomegaly , typically in the second and third weeks
- Associated abdominal pain or discomfort
- Hepatomegaly is rarely clinically palpable although is often detected on ultrasound
- Elevation of liver transaminases are common in up to 50%
- Overt hepatitis with jaundice and tender hepatomegaly occurs in 5-10%
- Older adults are more likely to develop hepatomegaly and jaundice than adolescents.
- Arthritis in one or more joints
- Lymphoproliferative and other autoimmune haematological diseases.
Causes Of Reactivation Of Epstein
When your immune system is not functioning properly, the risk of Epstein-Barr viral reactivation substantially increases. There are many reasons why your immune system may not be functioning properly. Lets take a look at these and what you can do to improve your immunity and decrease the risk of a reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus.
Epstein Barr Virus Statistics
It may surprise you to learn that most people contract this virus during their lifetime, usually in childhood. In fact, scientists and medical experts believe that over 90 percent of the worldwide population has contracted the virus. However, most people arent aware of it because not everyone experiences symptoms.
Treatment for the virus is usually straightforward, so there isnt a high death rate from the virus. However, in some cases, the virus can cause cancer, and there are a small number of deaths from this globally.
In a study done by researchers at United Arab Emirates University, it was shown that in 2010 only about 1.8% of worldwide cancer-related deaths were caused by the virus. This is a meager number, but its over 14% higher than 20 years before that.
Perhaps if more people learn about the viruss symptoms and how it spreads, this rate can begin to decline before it becomes a serious global issue. Below are 15 symptoms to look out for that may indicate you have the virus.
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