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What Opportunistic Infections Are Associated With Aids

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Are Opportunistic Infections Common In People With Hiv

Opportunistic Infections and AIDS-defining illnesses – CD4 cell count, malignancy, treatment

OIs are less common now than in the early days of HIV and AIDS when there was no treatment. Todays HIV medicines reduce the amount of HIV in a persons body and keep the immune system stronger and better able to fight off infections.

However, some people with HIV still develop OIs for reasons such as:

  • they do not know they have HIV and so they are not on treatment
  • they know they have HIV but are not taking ART
  • they had HIV for a long time before they were diagnosed and so have a weakened immune system
  • they are taking ART, but their drug combination is not working as expected and is not keeping their HIV levels low enough for their immune system to fight off infections

Opportunistic Infection And Hiv/aids

HIV is a virus that targets T cells of the immune system and, as a result, HIV infection can lead to progressively worsening immunodeficiency, a condition ideal for the development of opportunistic infection. Because of this, respiratory and central nervous system opportunistic infections, including tuberculosis and meningitis, respectively, are associated with later-stage HIV infection, as are numerous other infectious pathologies. Kaposis sarcoma, a virally-associated cancer, has higher incidence rates in HIV-positive patients than in the general population. As immune function declines and HIV-infection progresses to AIDS, individuals are at an increased risk of opportunistic infections that their immune systems are no longer capable of responding properly to. Because of this, opportunistic infections are a leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths.

Opportunistic Infections Vs Aids

While AIDS-defining illnesses can also be classified as opportunistic infections, the opposite is not necessarily true. Opportunistic infections are those caused by otherwise common, harmless viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites which can cause disease when immune defenses have been compromised.

Many opportunistic infections are not life-threatening and can develop even when a persons CD4 count is high. AIDS-defining illnesses, by contrast, tend to appear during later-stage disease when the CD4 count has dropped significantly.

Some opportunistic infections, such as herpes simplex, are only considered to be AIDS-defining when they spread beyond the tissue or organ where they are typically seen.

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Criteria For A Positive Mngs Result

For bacteria , viruses, fungi, and parasites, whose reads number was in the top 10 in the complete belonging list, mNGS identified a microbe .20 The result was considered Mycobacterium tuberculosis-positive when at least one specific read was mapped to the species or genus level.21

For cases who were detected Cytomegalovirus22 and Human gammaherpesvirus 423 by mNGS, if serum PCR indicated positive at the same time, we identified that they were infectious pathogens. Furthermore, the mixed infection was defined as the isolation of more than one pathogenic species. After obtaining laboratory tests, chest imaging and mNGS results, clinical features were taken into consideration by two senior chief physicians to identify the pathogens and reached a consensus.24

The Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay


Loop-mediated isothermal amplification is a unique, temperature-independent technique for amplifying DNA that is simple to use, providing a visual display that is easy to read. TB-LAMP does not require sophisticated instrumentation and can be used at a peripheral health center level, given biosafety requirements similar to microscopy. A meta-analysis of 10 studies reported a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 96% to diagnose pulmonary TB . One of the data sets included in the meta-analysis stood out in terms of its findings: the study conducted in Malawi among individuals with cough reported a sensitivity of 65% , specificity of 100% , similar performance to Xpert, but lower performance compared to concentrated fluorescent smear microscopy with duplicate reading . TB-LAMP, however, provides better results than sputum smear microscopy, detecting 15% more patients with pulmonary TB, if performed in all persons presenting with signs and symptoms. If used as an add-on test after microscopy has been performed, > 40% increase in TB cases were detected among those with smear-negative results compared to other rapid tests that have been recommended by WHO in recent years.

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Am I More At Risk Of Covid

We are still learning about COVID-19. But current evidence suggests that people with HIV have an increased risk of becoming seriously ill or dying from it.

The best way to stay healthy is to properly take your HIV medication and any other medication you are on. It is also important to follow national guidelines on preventing COVID infections and testing, and get a COVID-19 vaccination.

What Is The Most Common Opportunistic Infection In Children With Aids

In the pre-HAART era, the most common opportunistic infections among children in the United States were serious bacterial infections , herpes zoster, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex .

What is the most common opportunistic infection associated with AIDS quizlet?

Mycobacterium avium complex : It is one of the most common opportunistic bacterial infections in the AIDS population in the US.

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What Pathogens Are Opportunistic

One of the best studied bacterial opportunistic pathogens is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This microorganism is currently among the most prevalent causes of infection at hospitals and is the major cause of chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. These patients are frequently infected by a single P.

Incidence Of Ois In Art

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections — Beata Casanas, DO

The most common OIs in ART-naive participants were oral candidiasis , unspecified tuberculosis , herpes zoster , PTB , bacterial pneumonia , and GUD . There were some differences in incidence across the regions based on a comparison of the 11 OIs and coinfections for which there was at least 1 study per region . There were no data available in ART-naive participants in Latin America for esophageal candidiasis, GUD, Cryptosporidium, PTB, or bacterial infections, or in Asia for bacteremia or enteritis. Overall, there was a slightly lower reported risk of all OIs except GUD and bacterial pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa unspecified tuberculosis was most commonly diagnosed in Asia , and PCP , toxoplasmosis , and Kaposi sarcoma in Latin America.

Summary incident risk of each opportunistic infection by region and overall for antiretroviral therapy naive patients , and during the first year of ART . Abbreviations: GUD, genital ulcer disease HSV, herpes simplex virus PCP, Pneumocystis pneumonia TB, tuberculosis.

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Racial Sexual And Age

In the United States, the rate of HIV infection is highest in Blacks . The prevalence is also high among Hispanic persons . These increased rates result from socioeconomic factors rather than genetic predisposition.

In the developed world, HIV infection is much more common in males. In 2015, males accounted for 81% of all diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents in the United States. Among heterosexuals, females are more likely to acquire HIV infection from an infected male than a male is from an infected female, but a large proportion of infections in males are due to homosexual contact, with or without injection drug use. Males are also more likely to acquire HIV infection from injection drug use alone.

Males were also more likely to acquire HIV infection through contaminated blood products for treatment of hemophilia before universal testing of the blood supply was instituted. The risk of HIV exposure from factor VIII concentrates has been virtually eliminated by viricidal treatment of plasma-derived factor VIII concentrates, as well as the introduction of recombinant factor VIII concentrates and the gradual elimination of albumin from the production process used for these products.

In the developing world, HIV infection is equally common in males and females. The primary route of HIV transmission in the developing world is heterosexual contact.

List Of Common Opportunistic Infections In Hiv And Aids

The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of infections known as opportunistic infections that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. OIs are less common today because of advances in HIV treatments and the ability to help keep a person’s immune system stronger.

These are some of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infections seen in clinical practice, as noted by the CDC.

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Will I Get Other Health Conditions Because I Have Hiv

Not necessarily. Having HIV does not automatically mean you will get other health conditions . But you are more at risk of developing them if you do not look after yourself. Its important to take your antiretroviral treatment and to have a healthy lifestyle.

If you have HIV, your doctor will look for signs of other health conditions in your check-ups. They can also give you more information about conditions that are linked to HIV that will help you make sense of it all.

Data Collection Tools And Procedures

Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS

Data were collected by face to face interviews by using a pre-tested questionnaire a pre-tested checklist to collect information regarding OIs and patients clinical records were reviewed. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was utilized to collect socio-demographic characteristics, another clinical information, and other risk factors. The questionnaires were pre-tested and validated before two weeks in the study time in Dore Bafana primary hospital on 5% of HIV positive patients who attend ART clinic which was outside of the study area and some modifications on sequence and arrangement of multiple answer questionnaire were made. Data collectors were five clinical nurses supervised by one BSC nurse supervisor and investigators. Training and practical demonstrations on interview techniques and document extraction procedures based on the checklist were given to data collectors for two consecutive days assessed for competency.

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What Are Opportunistic Infections

Opportunistic infections are infections that occur more frequently and are more severe in people with weakened immune systems, including people with HIV.

Many OIs are considered AIDS-defining conditions. That means if a person with HIV has one of these conditions, they are diagnosed with AIDS, the most serious stage of HIV infection.

Can Ois Be Treated

There are many medicines to treat HIV-related OIs, including antiviral, antibiotic, and antifungal drugs. The type of medicine used depends on the OI.

Once an OI is successfully treated, a person may continue to use the same medicine or an additional medicine to prevent the OI from coming back. The Clinical Info Drug Database includes information on many of the medicines used to prevent and treat OIs.

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What Is An Opportunistic Infection

Opportunistic infections are infections that occur more often or are more severe in people with weakened immune systems than in people with healthy immune systems. People with weakened immune systems include people living with HIV.

OIs are caused by a variety of germs . OI-causing germs spread in a variety of ways, for example, in the air, in body fluids, or in contaminated food or water. Some OIs that people with HIV may get include candidiasis, Salmonella infection, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis . The Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV provide detailed information on HIV-related OIs.

What Is The Most Common Opportunistic Infection In Aids

HIV: Clinical Disease and Opportunistic Infections

Asked By : Thomas Dailey

What are Some of the Most Common Opportunistic Infections? Some of the most common OIs in people living with HIV in the U.S. are: Herpes simplex virus 1 infectiona viral infection that can cause sores on the lips and mouth. Salmonella infectiona bacterial infection that affects the intestines.

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Environmental And Behavioral Related Characteristics

The majority of 273 were living in the cemented floor house. Most of 401 had a latrine, among this 395 were shared with their family and neighbors. More than half of 287 used Garbage can or sac to disposer refuse. The main source of drinking water was 398 pipe water. Regarding behavioral related factors, 27 were used any tobacco products, among this 14 were current cigarette smokers. The prevalence of Khat chewing was 48 . Regarding alcohol consumption, 71 were ever drunk alcohol, 63 were drinking alcohol in the last 30 days .

Table 2 Environmental and Behavioral Characteristics of HIV-Positive Adults on ART at Selected Hospitals in Sidama Regional State, Southern Ethiopia, 2019

Mycobacterium Avium Complex In Hiv

Mycobacterium avium complex is a common AIDS infection caused by a bacterium related to tuberculosis, as well as Mycobacterium intracellulare or Mycobacterium kansasii. The mycobacteria are present in the soil and rarely cause issues for those with a healthy immune system.

Normally, the bacterium causes an infection of the respiratory tract but, in advanced HIV or AIDS, an infection can affect almost any internal organ, including the bone marrow, liver or spleen. MAC causes nonspecific symptoms such as cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, stomach pain, and diarrhea.

MAC is particularly dangerous in those with a CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3 or less.

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Effect Of Art On Incidence Of Ois

During the first year of ART, the risk of all OIs declined to < 2%, except for unspecified tuberculosis , PTB , herpes zoster , and oral candidiasis , which remained the most common OIs .

Meta-regression analysis found that the greatest effect of ART was seen during the first year of treatment, and ranged from a 57%91% reduction. There were few studies providing information on risk after the first year of ART except for unspecified tuberculosis and PTB. The magnitude of effect of ART during the first year was greatest for oral candidiasis , cerebral toxoplasmosis , and PCP . There was also a nonstatistically significant reduction for cryptococcal meningitis , herpes zoster , Kaposi sarcoma , esophageal candidiasis , and GUD . There was a 57%64% reduction in risk of tuberculosis . After the first year, there was a further reduction in risk for PTB and unspecified tuberculosis . Summary risks for unspecified time on ART also showed a reduction in incidence for each OI, although this was less marked than during the first year of ART.

In the meta-regression analysis of the effect of region on incidence , compared with sub-Saharan Africa, there was an increased risk of PCP in studies from Latin America and Asia and in Asia for toxoplasmosis , cryptococcal meningitis , and EPTB . There were no significant regional differences for oral or esophageal candidiasis, herpes zoster, or GUD.

How Can You Prevent Getting Opportunistic Infections


If you have HIV, the best thing you can do to stay healthy and prevent OIs is to take HIV medicine exactly as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral loada level of HIV in your blood so low that a standard lab test cant detect it.

It is also important to stay in HIV medical care and get lab tests done. This will allow you and your health care provider to know when you might be at risk for OIs and discuss ways to prevent them.

Some of the ways people with HIV can reduce their risk of getting an OI include:

  • avoiding exposure to contaminated water and food
  • taking medicines to prevent certain OIs
  • getting vaccinated against some preventable infections
  • traveling safely

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Can Opportunistic Infections Be Treated

If you develop an OI, there are treatments available such as antiviral, antibiotic, and antifungal drugs. The type of medicine your health care provider prescribes will depend on the OI.

Once an OI is successfully treated, a person may continue to use the same medicine or an additional medicine to prevent the OI from coming back. Having an OI may be a very serious medical situation and its treatment can be challenging.

How Aids May Lead To An Opportunistic Infection

Because people with AIDS have weakened immune systems, theyre more prone to infections, called opportunistic infections. Opportunistic infections are caused by organisms that typically dont cause disease in healthy people but affect people with damaged immune systems . These organisms attack when theres an opportunity to infect.

Why does AIDS cause death by opportunistic diseases?

The infections are called opportunistic because they take the opportunity to attack you when your immune system is weak. The cancers are called AIDS related because they appear mostly in people who have advanced, later-stage HIV infection, known as AIDS. Most people who die of AIDS do not die from the virus itself.

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Management In Patients With Pulmonary Infections Receiving Art

When the infection occurs within 12 weeks of starting ART, many cases can represent unmasking IRISs treatment of the infection should be started and ART should be continued . When the infection occurs > 12 weeks after initiation of ART, despite complete virological suppression, therapy for the infection should be initiated and ART should be continued if the CD4 responses has been suboptimal, modification of the ART regimen could be considered . When the infection occurs in the setting of virological failure, infection therapy should be started and the ART regimen should be modified to achieve better virological control .

Recurrent Pneumonia In Hiv

HIV and CNS Opportunistic Infections in HIV

Studies have shown that persons with HIV-related immunosuppression are at an increased risk of pneumonia, an infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Symptoms include cough, often with mucous production, fever, chills, and difficult breathing. Streptococcus pneumoniae, also called Pneumococcus, can be prevented with a vaccine that all HIV-infected people should receive.

Recurrent episodes of pneumonia are more strongly associated with immunosuppression than are single episodes.

Patients with CD4 counts less 200 cells/mm3 may be at higher risk of recurrent episodes of pneumonia.

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