Is Minocycline Penicillin Based
Minocycline belongs to the tetracycline category of antibiotics and is not penicillin-based. It is used to treat a host of different bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, skin infections. It can also be used to treat patients who cannot be treated with penicillin-based drugs.
What Are The Main Differences Between Minocycline And Doxycycline
Minocycline is a prescription antibiotic medication belonging to a drug class known as tetracyclines. It is commonly used to treat acne, rosacea, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and certain sexually transmitted infections. Minocycline interferes with protein synthesis by binding to the mRNA ribosome complex. Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible to minocycline than gram-negative bacteria.
Minocycline is available as oral immediate-release capsules and tablets in 50 mg, 75 mg, and 100 mg strengths. It is also available in extended-release capsules and tablets. Minocycline is also available as a powder to be reconstituted for injection as well as a topical-only use foam.
Doxycycline is a prescription antibiotic medication that also belongs to the class of tetracycline antibiotics. Doxycycline is indicated to treat acne, rosacea, respiratory infections, and non-gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Doxycycline works similarly to minocycline, by inhibiting protein synthesis in the bacterial cell. However, doxycycline is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
Doxycycline is available in two salt forms, doxycycline hyclate and doxycycline monohydrate. Doxycycline hyclate is the more soluble of the two salt forms. Doxycycline hyclate is available in immediate-release tablets in strengths of 20 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg, and 150 mg, immediate-release capsules, and as an oral suspension.
How Long Do Antibiotics Take To Work On Sinus Infections
Often, sinus infections are treated with antibiotics. However, your doctor will determine the best treatment based on the root cause of your sinus infection. If antibiotics are prescribed, you may want to know how long it will be before you start to experience relief from symptoms.
Read on to find out how sinus infections are diagnosed, when your doctor may prescribe antibiotics, and how long it will take antibiotics to take effect.
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Best Antibiotics For Strep Throat
Dr. Umer Khan
Dr. Umer Khan
Medically reviewed by Dr Umer Khan, MD who is a Board Certified physician practicing in Pennsylvania. His special interests include wellness, longevity and medical IT.
Strep throat is a bacterial infection that can lead to throat pain, painful swallowing, and swollen lymph nodes around the neck. While strep throat is typically treated with a combination of at-home treatment and medication, antibiotics are the best way to get rid of strep throat.
If youre worried that you or your child may have strep throat, its important to know which antibiotics are going to help you start feeling better. Read on to learn which strep throat antibiotics your doctor may prescribe to effectively manage your symptoms.
Why Is Minocycline Bad For You
Minocycline is not necessarily bad, but it needs to be prescribed by a doctor for a specific number of days in order to treat the infection. Most antibiotics are only given for a short duration and then ceased once the patient starts to recover or shows complete recovery. This is done so that the bacteria dont become drug-resistant.
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Dosage Of Doxycycline For Sinus Infection
The medicine of Doxycycline is available in the following forms-
- Liquid form
- Intravenous solution
Doctors prescribe to take this medicine in the form of pills for people suffering from sinusitis. There are various strengths of Doxycycline for sinus infection- 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg. In order to take the medicine, theres no need to crush or break it. Take one tablet whole while drinking one full glass of water with each dose.
Unless prescribed otherwise by doctors, usually the normal dose of oral form of doxycycline is 200 mg on the first day of the course. Followed by, changing the dosage to two 100 mg doses 12 hours apart. After this, maintaining a dose of 100 mg regularly for 7-10 days.
Although in rare cases, when the infection is severe, doctors can recommend higher doses such as 300 mg daily for 10 days.
Children over 8 years of age can take doxycycline for sinus infection. The dosage of the medicine depends on the childs weight.
Make sure that the course of the medicine is completed. Also, dont stop the medicine abruptly without proper consultation with the doctor.
What Is Strep Throat
Strep throat is a type of bacterial infection that can make your throat feel painful, sore, and scratchy. Strep throat infections are caused by bacteria known as Streptococcus pyogenes, or Group A Streptococcus.
The most common symptoms of strep throat include:
- Sore, scratchy throat
- Tender, swollen lymph nodes around the neck
- Tiny red spots toward the back of the roof of the mouth
While strep throat is more common in children, it can affect people of all ages. If you or your child experiences any of the signs of symptoms of strep throat, its essential to see your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.
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Effects Of Minocycline On Hiv Infection
In addition to the effects of minocycline on CD4+ T-cells and viral replication, the decreased monocyte/macrophage activation caused by this antibiotic can also play a neuroprotective role in SIV-AIDS. Ratai et al. reported, in a non-human primate model of accelerated neuro-AIDS, that none of the minocycline-treated animals developed SIV encephalitis. More recently, Campbell et al. also concluded that, not only its effects on T-cells, but also its inhibitory effect on monocyte activation, correlate with neuronal protection in SIV neuro-AIDS. The authors observed that the reduction of viral replication in CD14+ monocytes in vitro after minocycline treatment was directly related to impaired traffic of these cells into the brain. Therefore, there was a correlation between the expansion of activated monocytes and neuronal protection with minocycline. This may result in decreased replication or abundance of CD14+CD16+ target cells for HIV and SIV in vivo, as shown in a rapid model of SIV-neuropathogenesis in rhesus macaques. In this model, minocycline treatment resulted in neuronal protection: it reduced the activation of monocytes and their accumulation in the lymph nodes of treated animals, and inhibited the expression of several markers critical for monocyte traffic and function . These results indicate that the anti-viral effects of minocycline are linked to its ability to reduce the activation of monocytes and their permissiveness to viral infection.
What Should I Know About Storage And Disposal Of This Medication
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture . Store minocycline pellet-filled capsules and extended-release tablets away from light.
Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA’s Safe Disposal of Medicines website for more information if you do not have access to a take-back program.
It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location â one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach.
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What Bacteria Does Minocycline Kill
Minocycline kills Propionibacterium, commonly found in acne. These bacteria cause excessive skin inflammation, and the drug can be given to the patient to fight this effectively. It also kills bacteria such as E. Coli, Shigella, and Acinetobacter. Thus, this medicine is highly effective for bacteria that cause skin infections, food poisoning, and respiratory infections.
Precautions While Using Minocycline
It is very important that your doctor check the progress of you or your child at regular visits. This will allow your doctor to see if the medicine is working properly and to decide if you should continue to take it. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.
If your or your child’s symptoms do not improve or if they become worse after 12 weeks of treatment, check with your doctor.
Using minocycline while you are pregnant can harm your unborn baby. The medicine may also cause birth defects if the father is using it when his sexual partner becomes pregnant. If a pregnancy occurs while you are using minocycline, tell your doctor right away.
Birth control pills may not work as well while you are using minocycline. To keep from getting pregnant, use an additional form of birth control with your pills. Other forms include condoms, a diaphragm, or contraceptive foam or jelly.
Minocycline may darken the color of your skin, nails, eyes, teeth, gums, or scars. Talk with your doctor if you or your child have any concerns.
Minocycline may cause diarrhea, and in some cases it can be severe. It may occur 2 months or more after you stop taking minocycline. Do not take any medicine to treat diarrhea without first checking with your doctor. Diarrhea medicines may make the diarrhea worse or make it last longer. If you or your child have any questions about this or if mild diarrhea continues or gets worse, check with your doctor.
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Symptoms And Signs Of Sinusitis
Acute and chronic sinusitis cause similar symptoms and signs, including purulent rhinorrhea, pressure and pain in the face, nasal congestion and obstruction, hyposmia, halitosis, and productive cough . Often the pain is more severe in acute sinusitis. The area over the affected sinus may be tender, swollen, and erythematous.
Maxillary sinusitis causes pain in the maxillary area, toothache, and frontal headache.
Frontal sinusitis causes pain in the frontal area and frontal headache.
Ethmoid sinusitis causes pain behind and between the eyes, a frontal headache often described as splitting, periorbital cellulitis, and tearing.
Sphenoid sinusitis causes less well localized pain referred to the frontal or occipital area.
Malaise may be present. Fever and chills suggest an extension of the infection beyond the sinuses.
The nasal mucous membrane is red and turgescent yellow or green purulent rhinorrhea may be present. Seropurulent or mucopurulent exudate may be seen in the middle meatus with maxillary, anterior ethmoid, or frontal sinusitis and in the area medial to the middle turbinate with posterior ethmoid or sphenoid sinusitis.
Manifestations of complications include periorbital swelling and redness, proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, confusion or decreased level of consciousness, and severe headache.
How Does This Medication Work What Will It Do For Me
Minocycline belongs to the class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It is used to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. It is most commonly used to treat certain types of skin infections, urinary tract infections, gallbladder infections, and respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and sinusitis.
This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.
Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.
Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.
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Using Hydroxychloroquine With Common Antibiotic Increases Cardiovascular Risk
The combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has been linked to significant cardiovascular risks, including mortality, in the largest safety study ever performed comparing hydroxychloroquine treatment to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Hydroxychloroquine is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, while azithromycin is a frequently-prescribed antibiotic to treat infections such as pneumonia, chest and sinus infections, etc. This network study, led by the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics community, was recently published in Lancet Rheumatology.
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, hydroxychloroquine treatment in the short term was found to not carry excess risk of complications associated with its use, but hydroxychloroquine treatment in the long term had a 65% relative increase in cardiovascular-related mortality, compared to sulfasalazine, a similar rheumatoid arthritis drug.
Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin together had a cardiovascular mortality risk that was more than twice as high as the comparative treatment even in the short term based on findings from more than 320,000 users of that combination therapy. This treatment also produced a 15-20% increased rate of angina/chest pain and heart failure.
Does Strep Throat Need Antibiotics
Yes, treatment with antibiotics is necessary for strep throat. Unlike ear infections, which are viral in nature, strep throat is a bacterial infection and will not go away on its own. If left untreated, strep throat can lead to serious complications, including kidney inflammation or rheumatic fever.
When taken within the first 48 hours of the illness onset, antibiotics can reduce the severity of duration of symptoms. You should start feeling better and showing improvement within 2448 hours of starting treatment with antibiotics.
With that said, its important that you finish the prescribed course of antibiotics to avoid recurring infections or developing antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
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Which Drugs Or Supplements Interact With Minocycline
Minocycline should be used with caution with anticoagulant medications such as warfarin because it increases the risk of bleeding and bruising.
Antacids containing aluminum, calcium, magnesium and iron-containing medications can bind with minocycline, delay the absorption, and reduce the effectiveness of minocycline.
Minocycline should be used with caution with oral contraceptives because it may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives.
Disadvantages Of Doxycycline For Sinus Infections
A major disadvantage with doxycycline use for sinus infection is its side-effect profile. The side-effects however are not very common and at the most to mild. Some patients may experience nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting and loss of appetite. Rarely do patients get headaches and alterations in their vision following doxycycline use but if they do occur, patients are strongly recommended to visit their health care practitioner with a view to stopping the treatment and taking a suitable alternative for the sinus infection.
Doxycycline for sinus infections in pregnant women is a contraindication meaning that it should not be prescribed for pregnant women.
Doxycycline is a useful antibiotic in the treatment of sinus infections.
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Effects Of Minocycline On Sci
Because the neuropathic pain and motor weakness that result from microglia activation are believed to trigger nociceptive hypersensitivity in SCI, minocycline could be a rational approach for treating the complications of this condition . Support for this proposition comes from the results of different studies that show that minocycline may reduce neuropathic pain after SCI. However, few data exist regarding minocycline’s ability to promote motor recovery after SCI, rendering this possibility controversial. In rodent models of SCI, minocycline administration significantly improved both hindlimb function and strength, reduced the gross lesion size in the spinal cord and induced axonal sparing. Minocycline-treated mice demonstrated superior behavioural recovery than that shown by methylprednisolone-treated mice, the approved treatment for acute SCI in humans . In rats with SCI, minocycline inhibited the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, markedly enhancing long-term hindlimb locomotion . More recently, Saganováet al. showed that both short- and long-term treatment with minocycline had a neuroprotective effect on the spinal cord rostral to the injury epicentre. Previous data had indicated that minocycline exerts a protective effect on white matter and motor neuron number at sites both rostral, but also caudal, to the lesion epicentre .
Proper Use Of Minocycline
Take minocycline exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. To do so may increase the chance of side effects. Minocycline is not for long-term use.
Minocycline comes with a patient information leaflet. Read and follow the instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions.
Swallow the capsule, extended-release capsule, or tablet whole with water. Do not, crush, break, or chew it.
You may take minocycline with or without food. Taking minocycline with food may lower your chances of irritation or ulcers in your esophagus .
To help clear up your infection completely, keep taking minocycline for the full time of treatment, even if you begin to feel better after a few days. If you stop taking minocycline too soon, your symptoms may return.
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Warnings Of Minocycline And Doxycycline
Minocycline and doxycycline are categorized by the Food and Drug Administration as a category D drug, meaning that there is positive evidence of potential fetal risk. These drugs should be used only when there is a life-threatening risk to the mother. There is evidence of a negative impact on the skeletal development of the fetus.
The use of tetracycline antibiotics during tooth development may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth to a yellow, gray, or brown color. This effect is most common with long-term use, though it has been noted with short-term use as well. When possible, the use of tetracycline antibiotics should be avoided during the last half of pregnancy through the age of 8 whenever possible.
Minocycline has been associated with Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms syndrome. This is characterized by rash, fever, and organ injury, typically liver and kidney. Some instances can be fatal.
Tetracyclines have been associated with photosensitivity. Patients are more prone to sunburn when taking these medications and should take precautions such as sun avoidance, shields, and sunscreen.
Intracranial hypertension has also been associated with the use of tetracyclines such as minocycline and doxycycline. IH may present with headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and/or vision loss. Women who are of childbearing age who are overweight have a higher risk of IH.